ET-Ch12 - Classification of Eulgaijfotio Microorganisms DOB-IAIN Elllifllj-Tfl KINGDOls-IS Protista(unicellular eul~:ar3—*ote3 includes algaei

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Unformatted text preview: Classification of Eulgaijfotio Microorganisms DOB-IAIN: Elllifllj-Tfl KINGDOls-IS : Protista - (unicellular eul~:ar3—*ote3).. includes algaei protozrmi and slime molds - extremely parapltyletie group! Fungi - (_111ultieellular ellliaijrotesl inelurles yeasta molda etei Animalia - (multieellular eul-:a1*}-='otes'). 111ainly certain 111ieroseopie unarms and rotifers. KINGDOM MDNERA /\ DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EU KARYA Plants Fungi Animals '7 ngdom Protlsta: Algae (usually newed as a Sub-Klngdom) * Algae are “plant-like” protiata in that the}? plmtuayntheaize using chlorophyll (they are- photoautotrupha') * They are uaually 1111ic-ellulal*., although there- are amue- apparent exceptions (like “'aeamreecla”). ' T116}? alnmat almaya lire- in aquatic- »:111'ir011111611ta whare they are important pri111ar}? produc-era. Divisions of Algae: “Sean-*eeds” Multieellular with no true tissues ' Phaeuphfla - “the hrewn algaeil eenuuenly ealleel “helps”. They appear breurn 01‘ tan beeause the}? eentam an aeeesser}? pigment ealleel fueexanthm. AlgilL a feed tlueleener-‘emuls1fie1: is obtained from them Representatnre genus 61'sgt'rssm-J-a * Rhnduphyta - "t11e1'eelalgae”. They appear reddish beeause the}? eentam phyeehilin flCCBSSOI}' pigments Agai: useel as haeterial media. 1s obtained from them 80 1s the feed additive eafl'ageenan. Representative genus. Geir'efmm Algal Dix'isions, C-Ofltjd ' Chlarophfla - T'tlle green algae”. l\.-leat are unicellular with eelluleae eell walla (Eliza'rrjgrra = “pend Bil-11111”): (£5712? = aea lettueel which ia a 111111tie-ellular seaweed) - Green algae are almeat eertainl3—* the a11e-eatera {11f modern terre atrial planta. ' Unlike the brown and red algae the green algae eentain man}? trealm-‘ater forum Planktonio (“floating”) a gal Divisions * (Thrysophyta - The “diatomf - poaaeaa cell walls of ailieon dioxide“ often eonlple); and beautiful ahapea. ' Dinophyta or Pyrrophyta — The “dinoflagellatea” - known for their procluetion of neurotoxina during Spring T'hlouonn-t”.. often e—alled "red tideaii ' Both are the 1naj or primary" produeera of the marine world“ and produce the 111aio1*it}=' of the 111oleoular oxy gen on earth ' Foaail fuela are largely the remains. of theae two groupa. Kingdom Protista: Protozoa (often viewed as a “Sub-Kingdom?) * Protozoa are “animal-like” protiots in that tho}? are ollomohotorotroplls. ' They are oxoluoirol}? unicellular. ' Tho}? lix'o in Soil and watt-31: and often in 3}=‘111["1iotio relationohipo with animals; (lilo-:- termite-3:}. ' Some are potllogono. Phyla of Protozoa Sarrodina - the “amoeba” - Alnoe'baa nae lfiaeueloporla to more Emma-imam 1a the eauae of amoebic dysentery Mastigapho *a - the “flagellatea” - Flagellatea uae flagella to more Gunfire eauaea grarrhaam {Therm-er fettelml whieh ernnpera often get. It eauaea aerere G-l rhatreaa Ciliaphora - "the elliatea”_ Crhatea more by means of e1l1a. Generally not medically nnportant Representatn’e genus ' Pm we}: am an : Apiromplexa - obligate intracellular paraartea. An 1ntereat'1ng example 1a Phran-aem'uraL which eauaea 111alar1a PZom/zod'mm life cycle: example of a complex protozoan parasite ' Pimmrflr'um grow-"a by sexual reproduction in the Anophealea mosquito; if the inoaquito “hitea” a human, the infectix'e particlea. called. aporozoitea enter the blood and towel to the liver. ' The}? 11lultipl}? {h}? achizogeny) in the liner. and the new cells are called inerozoitea; theae enter the blood and infect red blood cello. * Are: the}? grow aaexuall}: the red blood cello ex'entuall}? rupture releasing more 111erozoitea and toxina which cauce the fe‘x'er and chills aaaociated with the diaeaaet P1319370dean life cycle * 801116 3331131 13-3113 c311an g3111ct0c-ytc3 3113 3133 111113ch 311d c311 1113 pic-133d up 11:: 3110t11cr 11133111111130 to 1*cpc3t the c—yc—la ' T113 111L13quit3 i3 c—3llcd t11c DEFINITIVE HOST 1134331133 it 113111313 the 3631131 3t3gc; 11111113113 3113 c-3llc-{Ll the INTERh-[EDIATE H(:)ST1 1161331136 33631131 reproduction arc-31113 111 113+ ® The infected mesquite bite: anather person and the spereanltes migrate through the blondfiream to the liver. @ Wm; mbp Sexual Flepmduetiun Asexual Hepmductien (5] swam-IE5 under“ in the merit and at:I'u'aen-geunrg.r in the liver and memeite-t are produced which then enter the hieadstrearn infecting new red bland tells. then migrate to the salivary glands nfthe mesquite. sparnznites in —t- salivary giant:t rygate —i- +— lntermediate heat @Mt male gamettacyte female retnite HMIGPS gammmg into ring stage In the ’ ted blend (all. gamemcfles ' _ - The ring stage gram. ® re)! and divides, and mare Fertilizatinn occurs * ‘ t _ $Egafltfl are in the mmquitu’t ‘ ' digestive tracttu maratoites fermezygnte. . @finmquita bites an Mésflu'm Inn-cred peraan and Q) _ gamtmfll male and female gammwtea. which may ante-r a new mnequitmmnfleting the life qrde. I- I- Kingdom FUNGI Fungi are aerebie er faeultatirelg anaerebie e11einelleteretreplla. The}? are uauall}? deemnpeaera lining in the soil. but aeine eauae diaeaaei Yeaata are the only unicellular fungi - the}? are plaeecl in tllia kingdom heeauae of their atriliing ainlilarit}? to other fungi. Fungi hare eell walla made of chitin. Divisions of Fungi - Fungi are Classified based on the type of sexual spore the}? make. ' Z-ygomycota - the “'“e-oniugation fungi” - Representative genus: Rhizopnsi the e-o111111o11 hlae-k bread mold Z}-'gon1}?eetes produce zygospores sexually-'1 from the union of two eo111patihle strands of the fungi (lg-sphaei}. ' Ascomycota - TTthe sae- fungi” - Representatis'e genera: 1\-'Te?ltl*{)312}{}l‘fl1 a 111old; Semi serous} *ees1 a yeast The sexual aseospores are enclosed in a sac-like “ase-us”. Zygomycota life cycle “Spores are relgased III Aerial hypha pro-flutes fizygnm '1er ME from sparing'um I. Spore germinates '3' Sparflngium . to Induce h ha a spnrangium p w Spun: nginspnres a Spnla ng in ITI bursts tu- rE-lease flames B Kawngamy and meiosis. Asenuai reproduction I ____|__ C2“ flzmmpom fl Gamma farms. I a PIasma-gamy at tip at hypha fl Spme gEllell'IatEE- “VEgEtathJe m “flu” WP“ mytelium grflWS Ascomycota life cycle flhscus u ens I . . . Hal'th producea m ref”; flhscuspme gmmlnates CDdeFE‘mes mnidmphme aflmrfl to produce hypha lediophme .-" ’__. .1 I?! II _ i I . _ . ' _ ‘___d_.__l__-_____— "_ I: I Inscaspmes r. \ . I 55:: are form from fused , r . {Elia by meiusis FIE-EIUBI TEpdeuc'tiun '-'- Vegetatlve mycetium grows ' fuse a Cunidinspure germinates m pmduce hypha More fungal Divisions * Baalclionq-eota - TTtlle elub fungi” - moat tllinga we recognize aa “uluahroonla” belong in this diriaion. Sexual baaidioaporea are preaent at the tips of atalli-lilie appendagea called baaidia. l\-—loat are 111aeroae—opie. * Deute1*onl}-'eota - Not oltraen'ed to produce sexual aporea but when the}? are the}? can be reeategorized into the appropriate group Basidiomye " life cycle - I.... 1?_r___ manna win-u] nut-HI: More about fungi ‘Na will dine-1133 funng diuenueu later. Ycamt are important cm11111¢rcinlly in the 11lnl~:ing of bra-ML been “Tina and npiritn. Spoilnge nffuodn bf; lllnldn in more {30111111011 than bactcrinl SpOllflQfl l\-l£lll}=’ fungi arc plant pamuiten (:(illlestnut blight). Lichens * Lieheno represent a 1'13’111biotie relationship between a funguo and 1111 algae. They are quite e-o111111o11 and are often pioneer Species. ecologically Kingdom Animalia: P113121 * Plaqahelminthea - "the flaw-“011113” — Traillatatlea 01* "flukea‘l attach to host tiaaue and anal: tiaaue fluida for nutrition. — (Teatadeai 01* “tapewarnlai genarall}? exiat in the G-I tract and cat a lot of their haat‘a food! Diaguatinglyi the}? can gct quite- large (greater than 20 ft) Kingdom Animalia: Phyla ' Nematode - the ”reululuferlrreii - (iienerally not parasitesr and are very ubiquitous; in soil and water — "Film-"011113" and “lliiuirlifi-‘er1113" are the exeeptimm We will dire-1133 the dieeases the}? eauee at a later time. * Refifera (retifere') - free-living freShu-‘ater organismm 3130 referred to as “wheel creatures.” Not pathogehie Kingdom Animalia: P113121 Arthmpoda (as; Yemen's) —Class Insecta - i113eet3e like the 11103quit0 (11131mia) — Class Araehnida - tie-1&3 (Lyme disease) (related to spiderS) Arthropod Vector Example: The Mesquite (Order - Diptera, Class - lnsecta} 4...;- Mesq-uites transmit a 1variety el' infectleus agents including pretlsts lMalarlal and viruses [yellow fever. lWest Nile. arheviral encephalitis] ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course BIO 315 taught by Professor Schmidt during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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ET-Ch12 - Classification of Eulgaijfotio Microorganisms DOB-IAIN Elllifllj-Tfl KINGDOls-IS Protista(unicellular eul~:ar3—*ote3 includes algaei

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