ET-Ch19 - I Vaccines and Immunization A vaccine ia a...

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Unformatted text preview: I Vaccines and Immunization A vaccine ia a auapenaion of pathogena or portions of patho gene that is used to induce artificially acquired active in1111unit}: Jenner waa the first ph}-='aician to use coo-pox to immunize people against smallpox. Today; anmllpo}; haa been eradicated hf; vaccination! The major idea ii»: to atimulate the normal immune reaponae without C—flllflillg the diaeaael This dependa on the formation of 111e111ory cellar Types of Vaccinations ' Inactia'atcd fi-‘llclc-agcnt Vac-cinca ccnaiat cflcillcd bactcria cr inactiratcd Vimaca. ' Attenuated. whole-agent Yflfl-C—ifléfl - contain wcakcncd pathcgcna. Pathcgcna arc cftcn cxpcacd tc fcrillaliin which in gcncral dcca nct clcatrc}? antigenic-it}? but (Ice-a limit pathogenic-it}: ' Tcxcida arc inactirc toxins.“ and can bc thc basic for a Vaccinc whcn thc diacaac ia cauacd by a toxin MORE vaccine types 1' Subunit vaccines ccncict cf antigenic fragments cf 11 pnthcgen Thece include: — Reccml‘nnnnt V171cc1ne11. 111 ufh1ch geneuc ellgnleel‘lng 11:1 uced tc 111‘t1f1cinlh? prceluce n pictein nnt1gen1 and — Acellulnr 1-7171ccinec. winch f1'171cticnnte the bacteria and 1eclnte can 171 pc1‘t1cn cf them. * DNA i'nccinec are experimental - they are braced cn the idea cf intrcducing the gene fcr an antigenic prctein intc an crgnnicnn caucing it tc expreee the protein. Why vaccinate? The obvioua anawer nnght be to proteot oneaelf from rlraeaael whreh la eertalnl}? true Another extremely important aapeot of raeernatron programs haa to rlo W111] proteetrng the puhhe‘a health1 The more people that get t.-"aee1'11:atee1.. the population hegina to burld up a ao-ealleel herd immunity - there W111 he leaa oarrrera. leaa of a reaerts'orr for the pathogen Therefore even nrrlns-‘r'ehlala who have not been nnnrunrzerl W111 have a leaaer ohanee of oontraeting Lliaeaae 1t 13 poaalhle to oornpletely eradleate a pathogen from a population tlnough vaeernatron pro grama 8111 all p0}; haa been erarlloaterl from the entire worleL and other arrruaea are eurrentl}? targeted Common vaccines and Current. Immunization schedule He}:er - given at birth to prev-Tent lrepntrtrn B drnenne DTP - rlrplrtherrrL tetanun. pertueere - user; diphtheria and tetanus. toxordn. and attenuated Bordefefhr pernrsrrn {eommon bneterrni {linemen} - given at 2 months; Hib - {Hem-mphrfus rnfi’rrenme} given at 2 months. to prevent tine eommon entree of meningitis [PV — {lllflfltlifiltfld12101101711113} - gl‘fivfl 3t 3 lllflllthfl k-[MR - k—ierlelee.. mumpn rubella [germrln menslee] - attenuated virus {eommon vn‘nl dreeneen} - given at l venr tiilrieleenpo}; {_K—-"rlrieelln) - attenuated virun given at l vr. PC V {Friesn—neeneenf eonjugnte} - given at 2 monthn to prevent 131113 eommon entree o f 111 enrngrtre and pneu 1n onrn Principles of chemotherapy AlltlflliC-ffll‘lifll £1111 Eli are Slll‘lfltflflC-GS (unlike clieiufectante and antiseptic-14'} meant to he t11l-:e11 internally to l~:ill er retard the gran-1h cf pathegene i11 i11£li1‘i{;luale with infecticne. Ar. with 1'11c-ci11e31 the meet effectire clru g1: hare hi gh toxicity to the pathogen but 1011:" toxic-it}? 111111 low occurrence 1:1facl1'er3e EiClC- effects in the 11111111111 heet h-lic—rehial (hug reeietahce is. a 11111icr challenge to 1110der11 111erlic-i11e1 Terminolo ' Antibiotics are naturally cccurring chenlic-ala prcduced h}? aac-cnufcete fungi cr bacteria ' Synthetic {hugs are prcduced in the lahcratcry. * Semisynthctics are lahcratcr}?-111c{;liflecl Tél‘fliflflfl cfantihictica. (Their ayntheaia begins with the natural anti'hicticc ') Principles of chemotheram - functional classes of drugs Antimicrobial drugs are placed into the followng categories dependinnr on their mode of action. The drugs usually act in one of the following ways: — Inhibition of cell wall synthesis-"destruction of cell walls — Inhibition of nucleic acid function or nucleic acid synthesis — Protein synthesis inhibition — hiterfcrence with the function of the plasma membrane Drugs that affect the bacterial cell wall “Penicillin” ' "Penicillin'T actually refers; to a group of orer 50 chemically related antibiotic-a, all of which ahare a functional group called a heta-lactanl ring in a core region called the nucleus of the molecule. * Many different apeciea of the mold Pcmcrllmm produce alightl}? different versions; of penicillin differentiated by the aide chain attached to the nucleua. ' The}? have a narrow apectrunl (generally are effectix'e against grain-poaitix'e cocci and apirochetea) and work by inhibiting peptidoglgcan croaa-linlcing. EDIT] H10“ F'ILICIE'LI 5 :—'—| fl) 5 . . . f \ xCHs PEHICIIIIH G CHE—C—NH—CH -—CH C\ | | | CH3 0=C—N—CH—CO0H 0 5 ll / \ ,CHg Penicillinv OCHF—C—NH—CH—CH C\ | | | CH3 O=C N—CH—COOH liwiactam ring Natural (antibiotic) penicillins * They are alae auaeeptihle to penieillinaaen enzynlea that many bacteria have eralred that make them reaiatant to penicillin (eapee-iall}-" lS‘faphjhenchmen?) * l\.-Ian}-' aenli-aynthetie penieillina are made in the lalmratnr}? h}? ainlpl}? adding different aide chains. to the nucleua made by the fungus. They are in general reaiatant ta penieillinaaea (until new Yeraiena erelre‘) and can he made to have a broader apeetrunl. Exalnplea inelude anlpieilliiL fllflflXFC-lllllL 111ethie-illini earhenieillin, and axaeillin. Cmnmun nudem 0 5 II a" X fCHJ Ampicilfin CH— —NH—CH—CH CE | I I l CH3 NH; 0=C-—N—CH—COOH OCH: 0 s ' II x a. ,i-CHJ Methicillin C—NH—CH—CH (km | I I 3 mm 0:: —-N—CH —COOH 0 _ _ u xsx ASH; Larbemcillin CH—C—NH—CH—CH C...“ | | | l CH3 [OOH D=C——-N—-CH-—CDOH 0 u xsx {CH3 Oxatillin C —C —C—NH—CH—CH C...‘ || II I I l CH3 NR {CR D=C N—CH—CDOH {:1 {Ha ' [TI-L1: Lam [Hqu Semisynthetic penicillins Other antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis Cephalosporins are produeed by a fungal genus related to Penmillium (“ti—’ephofospomma), and are snuilar 1n stiueturei but suff1e1ently dlfferent to be effeetiye flgflll‘lflt penieillin— resistant organisms h-Ionobacta ms - related ehemieally to penieillini but eontain only one ring An example is Aztreonam. Strangely-a it affeets only g:1111—11egatis-*e eells. Baeitraein is a polypeptide produeed. by Bacillus submits; and damages cell walls by interfering with NAth‘r.-‘NAl\-l polymerrzatron. It is mainly effeetiye against gram-positive baeteria and 1s limited to topieal use. T :1 \- aneomyein - produeed by an exotie speeies of iSlr'repion-{Teesi it is usually used to treat infeetions by staphyloeoeei resistant to oenieillin and other drugs Antibiotics that. interfere with Prote1n sy-nthems * Annno gi}-’GOSIC1¢S - annno engine Indeed by; ghfeoeidie hondn theee are made by various; Sin*epfonfi'ee? epeeieei and include Streptonq-*ein and Neomyeini which is. often need topic-all}: The}? are broad npeetnnni 33 are pretty much all of the antibiotic-14 that inhibit protein eyntheeie. ' Tetrneyelinee - eon1ple}; ringF etrueturee produced by Yfll‘iflllfi epee—iee of Sr: *epnwm‘een (Ii)ften ada'ereel}? affect the 1101111111 111ie1*ohiotn. and can e—nuee upset stomach and yenet infection Tetrnewline iteelfie the moat fnnloue of this. gn‘oUp. Protein S}"IlthEESiS inhibitors Ir Chloranlphenic-ol - organic compound containing an alcohol group it ia inexpenaire but often haa aex'ere aide effecta ao is rarely uaecL It is need in reaearc-h to inhibit protein ayntheaia in bacteria. * h-Iacroliclea - contain a complex atruc-ture called a 111ac-1*oc-}--'c-lic- lac-tone ring and are produced by (you gueaaed it} Various. Streptomycea apec—iea. The moat famoua ia 61‘E-7tiHDIIIE-TC-iflc which ia ainlilar in its apectrunl of ac-tia'it}? to penicillin. and ia often need aa an alternatix'e. Antibiotics that damage the plasma membrane - Polyungoiin B is produced by Borr'llua pmfimjwca; it ia effeotix'e moatl}? againat gain-negative bacteria and ia often need tolirioall}: - (A Yer}? popular orer the oounter antihiotio oream oontaina baoitraoim neomyeini and pol}-"111}-*);i11 B). Antibiotics that inhibit. nucleic acid synthesis * Rifanlycins - also produced. by Sfrepmmyres species. the most commonly used is the semi- synthetic- rifampin Rifanlpin inhibits 111RNA synthesis (transc-ription'), and is often used a gainst El[1'coi'mrfswmm species that cause tuberculosis and leprosy. It is also often used in research laboratories to inhibit transcription. Bacterial drug resistance * Bacteria generally bee-Dine reaiatant by one eftlnee methods: — Destruetien er lineal-"anon ef the antibiotie {e g .. penieillinaaea'} — PIER-7611131011 of penetration of the drug inte the nnerebe th-lAR nnltatien - multiple antilnetle reaiatanee 1n grant- negative eella'} — alteration ef target aitea {inainl}? fer theae that 1nh1bit protein a311theam}. ti?hang.firing—TT the rRNA er riheaen‘ial pl‘fltt‘ilfl aequenee may render the drug ineffeetnre Antiviral drugs - 1311111111tidi11e 111111 the fleet dieemrered drug:T th11t 1111111111 11g11ii111t 11 11111111 1t hide-lee the 1111e1111t111g Step ef the influenza A 1.1111111. It 1:1 Still 1111:1111eti111e11 used, but id limited 111 its 1:11.1e1‘1di ueefulheee - ivfeet 1111ti1--'ir111 {huge in use ted11‘j1r 111e 11ueleeeide 11111111143111 th11t 1111 the}? reee111hle 11 11111111111 DNA er RNA 11ueleeeide1 hut 11re different enough th11t they e11uee 131111111 ter11111111tiei1 during rephe11tiei1. — AC}-’GiL‘fl-’11‘ {Zen-71111311 V111trex'} 1:1 13111111110111}? preeerihed fer herpee ii1feetiei1e ef 111111111111 typee — ddL 1111d ddC are used 111 the tre11t111e11t ef AIDS - P1111te1111e 111hih1ter11 are 111311 eurre11tlj1r ueed fer HIV. Antifungal dings * Sincc fungi arc culcar3-*otca.. it atancla to rcaaon that in gcncraL clruga toxic to thcnl will alao be- toxic to ua. Ir Chlc hi g c|.iffc1*cncc.. howcrcn has to do with thc abundant atcroida in thcir ccll incinhranca: fungi contain crgoatcroL while- hunlan plaanla incinhranca contain cholcatcrol. Thcrcforci inanjr anti-fungal chuga targct crgoatcrol hioagnthcaia. ' Alaoi aa 3:131:11 lino“: fungi contain ccll walla lllfldfl of chitin that can he thc targcta of Tfll‘iflllfl £1111 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course BIO 315 taught by Professor Schmidt during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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ET-Ch19 - I Vaccines and Immunization A vaccine ia a...

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