TroChapter4Notes - Tros Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical...

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Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Equations Page 1 of 13 Acknowledgements: Some of the images are adopted from Tro’s textbook, the only purpose of which is to enhance student learning. Key skills: Calculations involving stoichiometric reactions, limiting reactant, and theoretical yield, determining solution dilutions, predicting solubility of a compd, writing precipitation, complete ionic, and net ionic equations, writing acid-base reactions, calculations involving acid- base titrations, writing gas evolution, combustion, and redox reactions, assigning oxidation states. Review questions: 1-24. Suggested problems: 25, 27, 31, 41, 43, 49, 51, 53, 63, 65, 67, 69, 71, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89, 97. 4.1 & 2 Fossil fuel, Global warming, Reaction Stoichiometry What does a balanced equation mean? A lot! We experience chemical reaction on a daily basis and never understand what they represent. If we understood all that we would have been able to tell ourselves how much food we need to eat to survive, how does fat grow due to eating too much carbohydrate, how do we contribute to acid rain that spoils our harvest, why it fizzes when we add baking soda to orange juice? Consider the combustion reaction of octane: 2 C 8 H 18 (l) + 25 O 2 (g) Æ 16 CO 2 (g) + 18 H 2 O(g) Molecular level Molar level Gram level Reactions happen by the mole bundle The coefficients in a chemical reaction specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances involved in the reaction. How many mole ratios exist in the above equation? (Refer to Example 4.1 and Practice 4.1 for problem solving help/hint.)
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Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Equations Page 2 of 13 Q25. Consider the following unbalanced equation for the combustion of hexane: C 6 H 14 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) Æ CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( g ) Balance the equation and determine how many moles of O 2 are required to react completely with 4.9 moles C 6 H 14 . Q27. For the reaction shown, calculate how many moles of NO 2 form when each of the following completely reacts. 2 N 2 O 5 ( g ) Æ 4 NO 2 ( g ) + O 2 ( g ) a. 1.3 mol N 2 O 5 b. 5.8 mol N 2 O 5 c. 10.5 g N 2 O 5 d. 1.55 kg N 2 O 5 Q31. Hydrobromic acid dissolves solid iron according to the following reaction: Fe( s) + 2 HBr( aq ) Æ FeBr 2 ( aq ) + H 2 ( g ) What mass of HBr (in g) would you need to dissolve a 3.2-g pure iron bar on a padlock? What mass of H 2 would be produced by the complete reaction of the iron bar?
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Tro’s Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Quantities and Aqueous Equations Page 3 of 13 4.3 Limiting Reactants, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield Limiting reactant Gets used up all Stops making any more products Limits the product formation Analogy – making a bike Reagent in excess Remains in excess after the reaction because no more of the other (limiting) reactant remains to produce product Can show up as contaminant in the product if not separated Theoretical yield – the amount of product that can be made in a chemical reaction based upon the amount of the limiting reactant.
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This note was uploaded on 03/08/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY CHE111 taught by Professor Pat during the Spring '10 term at Northampton Community College.

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TroChapter4Notes - Tros Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical...

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