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Unformatted text preview: Published by C h a p a n L Hall, 2-6 Bormdary Row, London SEl m, LX Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Raw, London SEl 8HN, UK Chapman & Eldl GmbH, Pappclallee 3, 69469 Wtinbeim, Germany Chapman &Hall USA, 115 fifth P:*ermt, NEW YO&, NY 10003, USA Chaimao Bt HaU Japan, l7?-Japan, Kyowa Building, 3F, 2-2-1 Ruahwachu, Chiyoda-b, Tokyo 102, Japan Chapman &Hall Australia, 1M Dodds Stnet, South Mtlboumc, Victoria 3205, Australia Chapman & Hall India, R. Seshadri, 32 Stcond Main Road, CIT East, Madnrs 600 035, India First edition 1981 Reprinted 1982, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992 Second edition 1992 Reprinted I993 (twice), 1995, 1996 0 1981, I992 D.A. Porter and K.E. Easterling Typeset in 10112pt Times by Bed-set Typcseuw hd, Rong Kong , Printed in Gnat Brimin by T.J.Pms (j'adstow) Ltd, Cornwall ISBN 0 412 45030 5 Apart from any hir dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or rcviw, as permitted under the UK CopyrigM Dcsigna a d Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reprcduccd,. stoced. or transmitted, in any form or by any mans, without the prior permission in writing of rhe pubtishefa, or in thc cast of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the t m of the licencts issued by the Copyright Lictasing Agmcy in the UK, or in accordance with the tams of li- issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the U K Enquiries concerning rcproduftion outside the t e r m slated hwe should be sglt to the publishers at the London add- printed on this page. ' The publisher makta no repmentation, expmss or implied, with regard to thc accuracy of the information conktined in this book and cannot accept any legal rwponsibility or liability for any crmrs or omissions that may be made. A Cataiogut m r d for this book is available ftom the British Library Library o f Congreu Cataloging-in-Publication Data available n BPrinted on permanent acid-fm text apsr manufa~tuA in accordance with ANSUNIS0 239.48-1992 and ANSUNLO 239.4% 1984 (Pcrmansncc of Paper). Contents Preface to the second edition Preface to rhe first edition I Thermodynamia and Phase Diagrams 1.1 Equilibrium 1.2 Single ~ o r n ~ o ' n e n f Systems 1.3.1 Gibhs Free Energy as a Function of Temperature 1.1.1 Pressure Effects 1.2.3 The Driving Force for Soliditicatiun 1.3 Binary Solutions 1.3.1 The Gibbs Free Enerpy of Binary Solutions 1.3.2 Ideal Solutions 1.3.3 Chemical Potential 1.3.4 Regular Solutions 1.3.5 Activity 1.3.6 Real Solutions 1.3.7 Ordered Phases 1.3.8 Intermediate Phases 1.3 Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems 1.5 Binary Phase Diagrams I 3 . 1 A Simple Phase Diagram 1.5.2 Systems with a Miscibility Gap 1.5.3 Ordered Alloys 1.5.4 Simple Eutectic Systems 1.5.5 Phase Diagrams Containing Intermediate Phases 1.5.6 TheGibbsPhaseRule 1.5.7 The Effect of Temperature on Solid Solubility 1.5.1: Equilibrium Vacancy Concentration 1.6 The Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium 1.7 Ternary Equilibrium 1.8 Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions 1.9 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations References Further Reading Exercises xi xii vi...
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