Lecture_11

Lecture_11 - gravitational force; as it collapses , the...

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Chapter 11 The Interstellar Medium
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Interstellar Matter apparent reddening of stars
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Interstellar Matter
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Star-Forming Regions This is the central section of the Milky Way galaxy, showing several nebulae, areas of star formation.
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Looking through interstellar matter
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Nebulae
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Eskimo Nebula
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units: millions
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Star-Forming Regions Emission nebulae generally glow red – this is the H ± line of hydrogen . Dust lanes visible are part of the nebula, and are not due to intervening clouds.
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How Nebulae work
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Star-Forming Regions
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Emission Nebulae
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Dark Dust Clouds This cloud is very dark, and can be seen only by its obscuration of the background stars. The image at right is the same cloud, but in the infrared.
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Horsehead Nebula
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21 cm Line
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Dark Dust Clouds
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Dark Dust Clouds These are carbon monoxide-emitting clouds in the outer Milky Way, probably corresponding to regions of star formation.
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Formation of Stars Like the Sun Star formation happens when part of a dust cloud begins to contract under its own
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Unformatted text preview: gravitational force; as it collapses , the center becomes hotter and hotter until nuclear fusion begins in the core. Stage 1 Stage 2 : Individual cloud fragments begin to collapse . Once the density is high enough, there is no further fragmentation. Stage 3 : The interior of the fragment has begun heating , and is about 10,000 K. Orion Nebula Stage 4 Planetary formation begins Last stages on the way to stardom stage 6 : the core reaches 10 million K, and nuclear fusion begins. The protostar has become a star. Stage 7 : The star continues to contract and increase in temperature, until it is in equilibrium . At stage 7 the star has reached the Main Sequence and will remain there as long as it has hydrogen to fuse in its core. Stages of star formation Jets from protostars Protostars in Orion These protostars are in Orion. Stars of Other Masses Brown Dwarfs Star Clusters Open Star Cluster: Pleiades Globular Clusters (old clusters)...
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Lecture_11 - gravitational force; as it collapses , the...

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