Evolution and Biological Roots of Psychology

Evolution and Biological Roots of Psychology - Chapter 2:...

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1 1 Chapter 2: Evolution and the Biological Roots of Behavior 2 Biological Perspective 1. To help us understand behavior, physiology and anatomy of the organism needs to be studied. 2. A great deal of similarity is found between humans and animals when we compare them biologically. 3. We will concentrate on eating and other motivated behaviors that provide us with a biological perspective to understand why and how these behaviors originate biologically. 3 Biological Perspective 4. A biological perspective lets us examine mechanisms within our bodies that control behaviors, thoughts and feelings. 5. We can compare these behaviors, thoughts and feelings with other animals and look for similarities and differences ( Comparative approach ). 6. Finally we want to know how these mechanisms evolved -- How did the similarities and differences come about in many a species? ( Evolutionary perspective ).
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2 4 Evolutionary Roots of Motivated Behavior 5 Similarities in Behaviors 1. We think and talk about humans as more evolved than other animals. 2. But the fact is that there are a lot of similarities between us and the animals. 3. Altruistic, play and curious behaviors exist in animals and humans alike. 4. Why should there be so much similarity of behaviors and traits? The answer is that all these behaviors and traits evolved through natural selection . 6 Natural Selection 1. Charles Darwin, a naturalist, went to Galapagos islands, observed trait differences between and among species. Published Origins of Species (1959). 2. He found differences in finches (beaks), and other animals (on other traits). 3. This lead him to develop his theory of evolution. (1809-1882)
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3 7 Natural Selection 1. There is lot of natural variations in animals’ traits. 2. Some traits are better at securing resources. 3. When animals command over resources they reproduce more. 4. Effective reproduction leads to offspring with parental traits. 5. The offspring can then compete for more resources. Finches beaks 8 Genes 1. How are the traits passed on? What is the mechanism? The answer is genes . 2. Genes consist of D eoxyribo N ucleic A cid or DNA. 3. DNA is the blueprint for building structures (proteins). Organisms have different blue prints thus build different structures. 4. Different organisms of different species may have similar DNAs, however some are different. DNA 9 Chromosomes 1. Genes are stored in chromosomes. And chromosomes are stored in the cell’s nucleus. 2. Each chromosome has 1000 or more genes. Humans have 30,000-80,000 genes. 3. More than one gene is needed to build a structure. One gene from the mother and one from the father. 131.229.114.77 Chromosomes
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4 10 Dominant-Recessive Genes 1. Genes are of two kinds: dominant and recessive . It is the dominant gene that dictates the structure
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Evolution and Biological Roots of Psychology - Chapter 2:...

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