Approaches to Learning

Approaches to Learning - Approaches to Learning Chapter 2 1...

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1 1 Approaches to Learning Chapter 2 2 Study Learning We can study learning indirectly by making observations and measurements of what changes in behavior. Stimulus Organism Behavior Changed Learning Initial Behavior 3 Naturalistic Observation Thus naturalistic observation as a method has been extensively used to study learning, both in humans and animals.
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2 4 Naturalistic Observation Detailed observations of any phenomena (say classroom learning) leads to classification of various elements of the phenomena, e.g., classroom learning can be classified into verbal, perceptual-motor, problem solving categories. 5 Naturalistic Observation Advantage Disadvantages Important first step to study any phenomenon (including learning) Complex and difficult Classified phenomena when closely scrutinized may lose distinctions among subcategories Uncontrolled 6 Systematic Study of Learning In recent times study of learning has come under more systematic, controlled and objective method of scientific inquiry.
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3 7 Science Science seeks to generate confirmable propositions by fitting a formal system of symbols (language, mathematics, logic) to empirical observations (Stevens, 1951). Hidden in this definition are two important philosophical positions of rationalism and empiricism. Combined, these two positions create a powerful discipline of inquiry. 8 Scientific Method Disadvantages Advantages At times cannot be used for ethical reasons Very productive Difficulty of generalization Controlled Repeatable Unambiguous Objective Scientific method captures the empirical side of science and has many advantages. 9 Theory A theory , based on science, is a system of interrelated hypotheses that explain a number of observations or phenomena.
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4 10 Aspects of Theory A theory, thus has two aspects, one based on rationalism, and the other on empiricism. 1. Formal aspect of a theory include words and symbols that explain observations.
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Approaches to Learning - Approaches to Learning Chapter 2 1...

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