Early Beginnings to Modern Times

Early Beginnings to Modern Times - Learning: Early...

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1 1 Learning: Early Beginnings to Modern Times Chapter 3 2 Epistemology Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of knowledge and seeks answers to questions below. Epistemology is a philosopher’s way of looking at learning. What is knowledge? What are the limits of knowledge? What are the origins of knowledge? How is knowledge acquired (learning)? 3 Socrates (470-399 BC) filipinaatheist.files.wordpress.com Theory of Knowledge Knowledge is acquired through disciplined conversation (dialectics). Disciplined conversation requires ideas be consistently clarified through dialogue.
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2 4 Problems 1. Conversations, in defining ideas can lead to confusions rather than clarity. 2. Such confusions arise due to different perspectives people may hold especially with abstract definitions, that are hard to define in the first place. People stick to particular cases when defining abstract ideas, e.g., beautiful flower and not the idea of beauty. 5 Plato (447-327 BC) www.poems.net.au Innateness of Knowledge Plato student of Socrates, believed in the innateness of knowledge. Human mind possessed knowledge. To acquire knowledge, humans must reflect on the contents of the mind. 6 Plato (447-327 BC) Innateness of Knowledge Self-exiled himself to Italy after Socrates execution and joined Pythagoras. Pythagoras suggested that universe was dualistic. Plato proposed mind-body dualism, and said that mind affected the body, but the body could not affect the mind.
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7 Aristotle (384-322 BC) www.martinfrost.ws Knowledge through Experience Aristotle student of Plato, believed that sensory information was the basis of all knowledge (experience). Attainment of knowledge was through mind, which interconnects ideas . All forms of sensory information result in mental ideas. 8 Aristotle (384-322 BC) Aristotle’s Laws Laws of Association a. Similarity (lemon-lime) b. Contrast (night-day) c. Contiguity (table-chair) Law of Frequency If two events are experienced repeatedly, presentation of one will lead to the recall of other. Law of Association
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Early Beginnings to Modern Times - Learning: Early...

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