Gestalt Theory

Gestalt Theory - Gestalt School on Learning Chapter 10 1...

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1 1 Gestalt School on Learning Chapter 10 2 History of Gestalt Psychology 1. Max Wertheimer, along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler founded the Gestalt School of Psychology and studied perceptual and other phenomena based on Kantian and other German philosophies. Their ideas started appearing in 1912. 2. Separated by WWI, three individuals united again to form the Gestalt of the Berlin School , and stayed in Germany till the 1930s and then migrated to the US. 3 History of Gestalt Psychology 3. In the US, Wertheimer at New School for Social Research, Koffka at Smith College, Kohler at Swarthmore College, and Lewin at Cornell and the University of Iowa continued to work on expanding gestalt ideas. 4. Gestalt school made enormous contributions to psychology. Their motto, “the whole is different form the sum of its parts”, gained household popularity. Although they confronted opposition from behaviorism, their ideas inseminated current cognitive psychology.
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2 4 Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) arbeitsblaeter.stangl-taler.at 1. Born Apr. 15, 1880 in Prague, Czechoslovakia. 2. Worked with Koffka and Kohler on Gestalt psychology. Their work was interrupted by WWI. 3. After war he joined Psychological Institute at the University of Berlin. 5 Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) 4. From 1929 to 1933, Wertheimer was a professor at the University of Frankfurt. 5. When Hitler became the thrid Reich, Wertheimers left Germany and came to the US on Sep. 13, 1933. 6 Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) 6. Joined New School for Social Research, New York. 7. With ill health, continued to work on problem- solving, and wrote Productive Thinking (1945) published two years after his death. 8. Died Oct. 12, 1943.
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3 7 Comparison of Schools Structuralism Behaviorism Mind (Wundt) Behavior (Watson) Structuralists concentrated on the elements of mind (mind = sensations, feelings, and images). Behaviorists believed in elements of behavior (behavior = S-R associations). Believed that complex mental ideas were made up of simple ideas (see J. S. Mill). Complex behaviors are made up of simple behaviors (reflexes). 8 Comparison of Schools Structuralism Behaviorism Introspection Observation and Experimentation Observation and Experimentation Whatever the phenomena of their study (mind or behavior), both schools of thought were similarly driven by a reductionist approach to break down mind or behavior into elements. 9 Gestalt Psychology Structuralism Behaviorism Gestalt Elements of mind Elements of behavior Mind or behavior must be studied in wholes ”, not as elements or parts. Molecules of mind Molecular behavior Molar behavior or mind Introspection Observation and Experimentation Observation and Experimentation Introspection Observation and Experimentation Approach: Mental Approach: Behavioral Approach: Cognitive
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4 10 The word Gestalt The German word gestalt can be translated to means form, pattern, configuration. This configuration or pattern offers an “organization” to
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Gestalt Theory - Gestalt School on Learning Chapter 10 1...

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