Guthrie - Edwin Ray Guthrie(1886-1959 Chapter 8 1 Edwin Ray...

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1 1 Edwin Ray Guthrie (1886-1959) Chapter 8 2 Edwin Ray Guthrie 1. Guthrie was born in Lincoln, Nebraska on Jan. 9, 1886. 2. He received his PhD in philosophy from the University of Pennsylvania (1912), and joined University of Washington (1918) as an assistant professor. (1886-1959) 3 Edwin Ray Guthrie 3. Published Psychology of Learning (1935). 4. Collaborated with Horton (1936-39) on stereotypical behavior of cats in a puzzle box. 5. Revised The Psychology of Learning (1952). (1886-1959)
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2 4 Edwin Ray Guthrie 6. received a gold medal form American Psychological Foundation (1958). 7. Died in 1959. (1886-1959) 5 Aristotle’s Principle of Contiguity Law of Association 1. A thought (or an idea) that was originally experienced along with other thoughts, will on their recurrence will lead to the recall of the associated thoughts. 2. Contiguity principle asserts that the basis for items to be associated are closeness in time and/or space. Aristotle (384-322 BC) 6 Association of Ideas
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3 7 Association of Ideas Because the sensory experiences were spatially and temporally contiguous for the child, they formed associations. Later when one idea was triggered, other associated ideas were recalled. 8 Guthrie’s Principle of Contiguity Learning Principle 1. A combination of stimuli which accompany a movement will on its recurrence, will be followed by that movement. 2. Contiguity principle says, when stimuli associate themselves with a movement -- their recurrence, is followed by the movement. Guthrie (1886-1959) 9 Pavlov & Watson Learning 1. Pavlov and Watson believed that bell (S) and weak acid (S) were contiguous. Association between the two led to learning (conditioning). 2. Guthrie criticized Pavlov and Watson on their explanation of learning (conditioning) and suggested that, combination of stimuli (bell & weak acid) associated themselves with a response (salivation). Whenever the stimuli occurred, response followed.
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4 10 Comparison Pavlov & Watson S Weak Acid R Salivation S Bell Contiguous Association Guthrie S Weak Acid R Salivation S Bell Contiguous Association 11 Stimulus Pattern Stimuli combine to form a stimulus pattern . Stimuli can be external or internal or both when they form an association with a movement. 12 Probability of Response Stimulus pattern cannot be predicted by absolute certainty, thus movements (responses) will always be probabilistic. S S S s S S S S S S S s S S S Movements Initial Stimulus Pattern Change in Pattern Movements (probabilistic)
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5 13 Signal This stimulus pattern thus becomes the signal for a movement or behavior. “What is being noticed becomes the signal for what is being done (Guthrie, 1959).” 14 Aristotle’s Law of Frequency Law of Frequency 1. Stimuli and their resulting responses have to be repeated frequently
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