Hull - Clark Leonard Hull(1884-1952 Chapter 6 1 Clark...

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1 1 Clark Leonard Hull ( 1884-1952 ) Chapter 6 2 Clark Leonard Hull 1. Born Mar. 20, 1884 Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. 2. Belonged to poor household. Contracted polio at 24. 3. Completed his PhD (1918) from University of Wisconsin. Studied Aptitudes and hypnosis. (1884-1952) vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de 3 Clark Leonard Hull 4. Provoked by Pavlov to study conditioning. 5. Taught at Wisconsin and then went to Yale. 6. Wrote Principles of Behavior (1943), and A Behavior System (1952). 7. Became the most cited psychologist in the 40s and 50s. Died in 1952. (1884-1952)
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2 4 Watson’s Behaviorism 1. Watson’s behaviorism radically denounces mind and consciousness and focuses on overt measurable behavior. 2. For Watson, the organism is empty and brain physiology merely connects stimulus with response. Stimulus Response Organism 5 Disagreement with Watson 1. Hull believed that Watson’s rejection of unobservable events inside the organism (body and brain) was unscientific. 2. Hull argued that physicists and chemists make inferences about things that they have not actually seen or observed, e.g., gravity, forces, atoms, molecules etc., but such phenomena exist. 6 Mediating Events 1. Hull proposed that since we cannot observe the mediating events inside the organism, it does not mean that they do not exist. 2. In order to study these mediating events we need to operationally define them. In other words operational definitions are those that can quantify these events. Stimulus Response Organism Mediating events
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3 7 Hunger: Mediating Event 1. Hunger can be defined as feeling of emptiness or the sensation of “pangs” in the stomach. However this definition is very subjective and difficult to measure. 2. An operational definition of hunger is, number of hours of food deprivation. This definition of hunger is quantifiable. Hunger = 8 hrs of food deprivation Organism 8 Intervening Variable Operationally defined mediating events, like hunger are intervening variables that reside in the organism and are caused by factors like food deprivation, thus they can effect behavioral change like learning. Food Learning Intervening Variable (Hunger) Organism Independent Variable (Cause) Dependent Variable (Effect) 9 Agreement with Watson 1. Hull totally agrees with Watson in stating that these intervening variables are not mind or mental events. 2. Thus (mental) feeling of “hungriness” was not important to Hull, but hunger as food deprivation was, because it could be measured and tested to explain behavior.
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4 10 Neobehaviorism Hull thus evolved a new brand of behaviorism (neobehaviorism) which uses intervening variables as hypothesized physiological processes , to explain behavior. 11 Hypothetico-Deductive System Hull developed a dynamic system that framed hypotheses and refined them to support and modify learning theory.
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Hull - Clark Leonard Hull(1884-1952 Chapter 6 1 Clark...

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