Pavlov - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) Chapter 7 1 Ivan...

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1 1 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) Chapter 7 2 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) http://www.epub.org.br 1. Born in Ryazan, Russia on Sep 14, 1849. 2. Studied the digestive system and won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for physiology and medicine. 3. At age 50 discovered classical conditioning. Nobel Prize Seal 3 Digestive System www.daviddarling.info “The digestive canal represents a tube passing through the entire organism and communicating with the external world, i.e. as it were the external surface of the body, but turned inwards and thus hidden in the organism (Pavlov, 1904 Nobel Lecture).”
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2 4 Fistulas & Animal Care http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu http://muskingum.edu To study the digestive system, Pavlov used dogs and made fistulas in their digestive glands and canals to study fluids that secreted from different regions of these canals. 5 Parotid Gland One such fistula was made to drain the secretions of parotid gland which delivers watery saliva as a reflex response when weak acid was placed in the dog’s mouth. 6 Salivary Reflex Tongue Receptors Glossopharyngeal Nerve (sensory) Medulla Weak Acid Salivation in mouth Parotid duct releases watery saliva Dilates blood vessels in parotid gland Glossopharyngeal Nerve (motor)
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3 7 Experimental Setup www.sruweb.com 8 Classical Conditioning Weak Acid Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Salivation Unconditioned Response (UR) Step 1: Reflex 9 Classical Conditioning Step 2: Selection “Bell” Neutral Stimulus or Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
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4 10 Classical Conditioning Weak Acid US Salivation UR Bell CS Step 3: Training 11 Classical Conditioning Step 4: Acquisition Bell CS Salivation CR 12 Common Conditioning Procedures Conditioning Procedure Organisms Use Salivary Reflex Dog Infrequent Eyeblink Reflex Rabbit, Human Frequent Skin Conductance Response (SCR) Human Frequent Conditioned Emotional Response Rat Frequent Aversive Conditioning Rat, Human Frequent
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5 13 Movie Classical Conditioning http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpoLxEN54ho 14 Features of Classical Conditioning 1. Pavlov suggested that an association builds between CS-CR after conditioning takes place ( psychic reflex). 2. In 1902, E. B. Twitmyer reported knee-jerk reflex based on a similar association between bell and knee-jerk response. 3. CR (saliva) is similar to UR, however magnitude of CR (quantity of saliva) is lesser than UR. 4. For optimal conditioning to take place CS needed to occur ½ second before US. 15 Extinction US (Weak Acid) CS (Bell) CR (Salivation) 1. CR (salivation) extinguishes if US (weak acid) is removed. 2. Thus US (weak acid) serves as reinforcement.
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6 16 Extinction -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Trial CR (Saliva, ml) US Removed CR Extingushed 17 1. After extinction of CR (salivation) a rest period “spontaneously” recovers the CR.
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Pavlov - Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) Chapter 7 1 Ivan...

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