Skinner - Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 - 1990) Chapter 5...

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1 1 Burrhus Frederic Skinner ( 1904 - 1990 ) Chapter 5 2 Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1. Born Mar. 20, 1904 Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. 2. Did his PhD (1931) from Harvard. 3. Wanted to become a writer was disappointed to learn that he had nothing to write about, instead became a great psychologist. 1904-1990 3 Burrhus Frederic Skinner 4. Wrote The behavior of organisms (1938). Walden two (1948) , after Thoreau’s Walden. 5. Taught at University of Minnesota (1936-48). 6. Chair at Indiana University (1945/48). 7. Came back to Harvard (1948-90). 1904-1990 www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk
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2 4 Burrhus Frederic Skinner 8. Beyond freedom and dignity (1971). 9. About behaviorism (1976). 10. Upon further reflection (1987). 11. Continued to publish to the end of his life in journals like Analysis of Behavior (1989). 1904-1990 images-cdn01.associatedcontent.com 5 Burrhus Frederic Skinner 12. Great contributions to learning and education. 13. Contributions to child development. 14. Project ORCON (ORganic CONtrol). 15. Died in 1990. 1904-1990 pavlov.psicol.unam.mx:8080 Project ORCON 6 Comparison Operant Conditioning Respondent Conditioning Skinnerian or operant conditioning Classical, Pavlovian, or respondent conditioning Type R conditioning reinforcing stimulus is contingent upon a response Type S conditioning reinforcing stimulus is contingent upon a stimulus S S (Food) R S R S (Food)
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3 7 Comparison Continued Operant Conditioning Respondent Conditioning Responses are emitted to a known reinforcer . Responses are elicited to a known stimulus . Conditioning strength = Rate of response Conditioning strength = Response magnitude 8 Theoretical Differences Functionalists Associationists Edward Thorndike Burrhus Skinner Ivan Pavlov Edwin Guthrie Concentrated on responses as they brought about consequences. Concentrated on stimuli as they brought responses. S S R S R S 9 Radical Behaviorism 1. Behavior cannot be explained on the basis of drive, motivation and purpose . All of these take psychology back to its mentalistic nature. 2. Behavior has to be explained on the basis of consequences (reinforcements, punishments) and environmental factors. This, Skinner proposed, was the back bone of all scientific psychology.
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4 10 Principles of Operant Learning 1. We need to know what is reinforcing for the organism. How can we find a reinforcer? It is merely a process of selection, which is difficult to determine. Reinforcers related to bodily conditions are easy to determine, like food and water. 2. This reinforcement will predict response. 3. Reinforcement increases rate of responding. 11 Operant Chambers Skinner devised operant chambers for rats and pigeons to study behavior in a controlled environment. Operant chambers opportunities to control reinforcements and other stimuli. 12
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 2533 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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Skinner - Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 - 1990) Chapter 5...

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