Tolman - Edward C Tolman(1886-1959 Chapter 12 1 Edward C...

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1 1 Edward C. Tolman ( 1886-1959 ) Chapter 12 2 Edward C. Tolman 1. Born (1886) in West Newton, Massachusetts. 2. B.S from MIT. PhD from Harvard. 3. Studied under Koffka. 4. 1915-1918 taught at Northwestern University. Released from university. Pacifism! (1886-1959) www.uned.es 3 Edward C. Tolman 5. Moved to University of California-Berkeley and remained till retirement. 6. Dismissed from his position for not signing the “loyalty oath”. Fought for academic freedom and reinstated. 7. Quaker background therefore hated war. Rebel in life and psychology. (1886-1959)
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2 4 Edward C. Tolman 8. Did not believe in the unit of behavior pursued by Pavlov, Guthrie, Skinner and Hull. “Twitchism” vs. molar behavior. 9. Learning theory a blend of Gestalt psychology and behaviorism. 10. Died 19 Nov. 1959. (1886-1959) www.uned.es 5 Comparison of Schools Behaviorism Gestalt Behaviorists believed in “ elements ” of S -R associations. Gestalt psychologists believed in the whole ” mind or mental processes. Observation and Experimentation Observation, Experimentation and Introspection Approach: Behavioral Approach: Cognitive 6 Tolman’s idea about behavior 1. Conventional behaviorists do not explain phenomena like knowledge, thinking, planning, inference, intention and purpose in animals. In fact, they do not believe in mental phenomena like these. 2. Tolman on the other hand describes animal behavior in all of these terms and takes a “Gestalt” viewpoint on behavior, which is to look at behavior in molar or holistic terms.
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3 7 Tolman’s idea about behavior 3. So rat running a maze, cat escaping the puzzle box and a man talking on the phone are all molar behaviors. 4. All molar behaviors have a purpose, and that purpose is goal-directed. So Tolman explains molar behavior in terms of goal-directed (meaningful) activity. 5. Tolman then is a neobehavioristic whose brand of behaviorism is called purposive behaviorism . 8 Differences Behaviorism Purposive Behaviorism Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Guthrie, Skinner and Hull proposed S-R associations meant learning. Tolman suggested, S-R associations were not beneficial for analyzing learning. Instead analysis of S-S associations were important in understanding learning. Study molecular behaviors. Study molar behaviors. Don’t explain behavior. Behavior is goal-directed. 9 Similarities Behaviorism Purposive Behaviorism Both agree that study of animal behavior is important not the study of animal “mind”. Both believe in observation and experimentation as a method of study, not introspection.
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4 10 Latent Learning To show rats can learn by exposure ( latent learning ), Blodgett (1929) took three groups of rats and allowed them to explore 6 unit alley T-maze. One group was not reinforced at all, the other two were reinforced after 3 and 7 days. 11
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 2533 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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Tolman - Edward C Tolman(1886-1959 Chapter 12 1 Edward C...

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