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Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development - Cognitive Development Throughout...

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1 Cognitive Development Throughout the Lifespan Chapter 13 Cognitive Development We will look at three aspects of cognitive development in our discussion. 1. Memory development 2. Metacognitive development 3. Development of language Memory Development Early research underestimated infants' memory abilities Psychologists used a number of different measure to ascertain memory capacities in infants and younger children. 1. Attention (looking time, Own-Race Effect) 2. Recognizing mother (visual, voice) 3. Conjugate reinforcement with a mobile
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2 1. Sangrigoli and de Schonen (2004) showed photos of White and Asian women's faces shown to White babies. 2. Presented one photo (White or Asian woman) repeatedly until looking time decreased. 3. Presented pair of photos (familiar-unfamiliar) White women or Asian women. 4. Looking time for unfamiliar White woman longer than familiar White woman. However no difference for familiar-unfamiliar Asian women. Own Race Effect (ORE) 1. Visual recognition: 3-days old recognize their mother from a stranger (Bushnell & Sai, 1987; Rovee-Collier et al, 2001; Slater & Butterworth, 1997). 2. Demand mother’s video: Infants younger than 3 - days old sucked to produce a video of their mother than strangers (Walton et al., 1992). Recognizing Mother 3. Mother’s Voice: Prenatal babies preferred mother reciting the poem than a stranger. Heart- rate changed more when hearing mother’s voice (Kisilevsky et al 2003). 4. Prenatal babies prefer characteristics of mother’s spoken language when reading a passage read many times to passage never read to them (DeCasper & Spence, 1986). Recognizing Mother
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3 Conjugate Reinforcement Babies hooked-up to a mobile with a ribbon, move their leg and shake it. In instrumental conditioning terms foot movement is the response, and mobile movement is the reinforcement. Rovee-Collier and colleagues tested 2-6 month old babies in this setup for immediate and LTM. Conjugate Reinforcement 1. Baseline, spontaneous kicking is first ascertained. 2. The ribbon is connected to the mobile and number of kicks are assessed during the acquisition phase. 3. Number of kicks produced following delay is used to measure immediate or long-term memory. Train Rovee-Collier and colleagues also used 6-18 month old children with a toy train on a circular tracks to measure memory. The train was hooked-up to lever that the infants could press, to make the train run or not.
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