General Knowledge

General Knowledge - General Knowledge Chapter 8 1 General...

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1 1 General Knowledge Chapter 8 2 General Knowledge 1. General knowledge is general in nature, and entails whatever (content) is held in semantic memory. 2. General knowledge is implicitly or explicitly acquired. 3. To understand general knowledge we need to understand structure of semantic memory , and schemas and scripts . 3 Declarative Memory Declarative Memory Semantic Memory Episodic Memory 1. Semantic memory: Organized knowledge about the world. 2. Episodic memory: Information about events that relate to us.
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2 4 Semantic Memory Memory Knowledge Example Semantic Encyclopedic Paris is the Capital of France Lexical White mean the same as fair. Conceptual Gravity attracts objects 5 Categories To understand knowledge we need to know two things. 1) Categories: Class of objects that belong together. 6 Concepts 2) Concepts : Mental representation of a category. More representative of concept of box. Less representative of concept of box. Even lesser representative of concept of box.
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3 7 1. Why code objects into categories? Mainly efficiency. Categories reduce information thus facilitate encoding, storage and retrieval. 2. How do we categorize objects? We will look at four different models of explaining how we categorize objects. a. Feature Comparison Model b. Prototype Model c. Exemplar Model d. Network Models 8 Feature Comparison Model Feature comparison model suggests that we code categories by comparing features and putting them together. Making decision about an object belonging to a category is faster if it contains all required features. Category Bird “Robin” Decision RT Bird Animate Animate Yes/No Fast Feathers Feathers Yes/No Fast Has breast Red breast Yes/No Fast Yes/No Fast Flies Flies Yes/No Fast 9 Features Smith and colleagues (1978) provided early feature comparison model. Defining Features (Essential) Are animate Have feathers Have a beak Characteristic Features (Accidental) Can sing Can fly Can perch Distinction between defining and characteristic features is arbitrary.
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4 10 Testing Features One way to test defining and characteristic features is carry out a similarity test. Question Feature Decision RT A cat is a pencil (low similarity). Defining False Fast A cat is a mammal (high similarity). Defining True Fast A cat is fluffy (intermediate similarity). Characteristic True or False Slow 11 Model Stage 1 Compare all features of the subject and the predicate to determine featural similarity Stage 2 Compare defining features of the subject and the predicate to determine featural similarity False True Mismatch Match Low Overlap High Overlap (Smith and Colleagues, 1978) 12 Testing Features One way to test defining and characteristic features is carry out a similarity test. Task
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 3153 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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General Knowledge - General Knowledge Chapter 8 1 General...

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