History of Cognitive Psychology

History of Cognitive Psychology - History and Introduction...

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1 1 History and Introduction to Cognitive Psychology Chapter 1 2 What is Cognitive Psychology? Cognition co- + gnoscere to come to know. Knowing requires mental activity which involves acquiring, storage, transformation and use of knowledge (Matlin, 2002). Cognitive Psychology deals with how people perceive, learn, remember and think about information (Sternberg, 2003) and how do they use this information (Matlin, 2002). 3 Why study Cognitive Psychology? 1. Cognitive psychology holds a major domain in human psychology. 2. It studies the mind and how it works. 3. And it has a widespread influence on other areas of psychology.
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2 4 History of Cognitive Psychology Generally speaking two approaches have been used to study the mind. 1. Historically, philosophical approaches have rendered an understanding to the workings of the mind using introspection . 2. And biology , has used observational (and empirical) methods to study the mind. 5 Reality does not reside in concrete objects but in abstract forms represented in our mind. Reality lies only in the concrete world of objects accessed through the senses. Plato (ca. 447-327 BC) Aristotle (384-322 BC) 6 Comparison Rationalism Empiricism Understanding of mind (or knowledge) through logical analysis and introspection (rationalism). Observations of the external world are the only means to arrive at truth (empiricism). Innateness of mind or mental faculties. Acquired experiences through interaction with the environment. Theory building in psychology today. Experimentation in psychology today.
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3 7 Seventeenth Century Descartes agreed with Plato and emphasized reflective methods (rationalism) over observation to study mind. Locke favored Aristotle and emphasized observation as a method (empiricism) to study mental processes. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) John Locke (1632-1704) 8 Immanuel Kant In eighteenth century German philosopher Kant addressed the issue of rationalism and empiricism and said that both approaches must be used to decipher truth and about reality of mind. (1724-1804) 9 Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) 1. First psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany (1879). 2. To analyze the structure of the mind. Through the method of introspection . 3. Elements of mind: sensation, feelings, and images.
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4 10 Functionalism 1. Mind or consciousness cannot be divided into elements. 2. Introspection cannot yield measures about the mind. 3. Mind or consciousness have adaptive value. William James (1842-1910) Self-portrait 11 Behaviorism 1. No room for mind or consciousness. 2. Overt behavior needs to be the scientific domain of psychology. 3. Behaviorism is an
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History of Cognitive Psychology - History and Introduction...

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