Imagery - Imagery Chapter 7 1 Imagery 1. Mental...

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1 1 Imagery Chapter 7 2 Imagery 1. Mental representation of stimuli when they are physically absent (Kosslyn, 2000). 2. Can you form images based on all senses: sight, sound, smell, taste and touch? 3. Yes. But some senses form images more readily than others, e.g., visual images are easier to form than touch. 3 Visual Imagery Within the same visual domain one image may be more finely detailed (quality) than the other. Photo Courtesy of Harald Edens www.spwiliamson.freeuk.com
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2 4 Comparison: Differences How do we compare perception and imagery? Perception Imagery Stimulus required No stimulus required Sensory receptor required No sensory receptors needed Bottom-up and top-down- processing Top-down processing only Perception, Illusions Hallucination, Dreams 5 Comparison: Similarities Perception Imagery Representation (visual, auditory, etc) is same for perception and images. Same/similar brain regions involved in the two processes. 6 Schools Structuralists Behaviorists Wilhelm Wundt studied mental imagery and considered images to be a part of mind. John Watson on the other hand suggested that mental images could not be connected to observable behavior therefore not worthy of scientific investigation. No sensory receptors needed Trained subjects to report images to access their nature and quality.
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3 7 Research Difficulties Mental images are not directly observable and fade away quickly (Richardson, 1999). 8 How do we store images? 1. Do we store images in visual forms or in linguistic forms? 2. Do we store information about images in memory and then recreate image? 3. Are images represented differently than facts? 9 Theories Analog Code Propositional Code Picture-like code Word-like code Images are like perception and retain some of the sensory qualities of perception. Images are descriptions of visual scenes. Relations represented implicitly Relations represented explicitly Simultaneous Sequential Different representation for each sense Same representation for each sense
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4 10 Analogical Code Shepard and Metzler (1971) presented pairs of 3-D line drawings and asked Ss to judge them as same or different. The second pair of the drawing rotated either in 2-D or 3-D. 11 Images and Rotation Eight subjects judged 1,600 pair of line drawing with rotations ranging from 20 to 180 degrees. They measured subjects reaction times. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Rotation in degrees 1 2 3 4 5 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Angle of Rotation (2D) Reaction Time (Seconds) 1 2 3 4 5 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Angle of Rotation (3D) 12 Images and Rotation Reaction times increased linearly as the angle of rotation increased, whether the drawings rotated in 2-D or 3-D. Suggesting an analog representation of images.
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5 13 Images and Rotation Cooper and Shepard (1973) asked subjects to judge pairs of alphabets, rotating in 2-D with much the same results. R
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 3153 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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Imagery - Imagery Chapter 7 1 Imagery 1. Mental...

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