Language Production

Language Production - Language Production Chapter 10 1...

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1 1 Language Production Chapter 10 2 Language and Society Language is the most social of all cognitive phenomena. 1. To persuade someone to do something. 2. To persuade someone to say something (establish a fact). 3. To influence someone to keep a relationship (keep their attention or entertain them). 4. To influence the related person to like you. Functions of Language Production 3 Difficulties in Language Production Research 1. Researchers cannot manipulate the ideas people are about to say or write. 2. Language production is action driven (behaviorist approach) so cognitive psychologists avoid delving into this field.
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2 4 Speaking 5 Producing a Word 1. We say 2-3 words a second. 2. Roughly 75,000-100,00 words in our vocabulary. 3. Imagine extracting 2-3 words per second from this large store. 4. And extracting the words for the sentence that are grammatically correct. 6 How is the word generated? 1. Grammatical Considerations 2. Semantic Considerations 3. Phonological considerations Two theories: All aspects are retrieved simultaneously Each aspect retrieved with different latency.
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3 7 Event-Related Potentials Turnout et al (1998) suggest that grammatical aspects of a language may be produced 40 ms before the phonological aspects. 8 Motor Responses Verbalizations of words include motor movements of the tongue and other parts of the oral cavity. However, hand movements may facilitate word production. Frick-Horbury and Guttentag (1998) showed recall was poor when hands were constrained than when free to recall. 9 Producing a Sentence 1. We plan a gist (meaning) of the sentence first. A top-down process. 2. General structure of the sentence without exact words. 3. Select words and their forms (grammatically correct). 4. The sentence is finally uttered by articulating phonemes .
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4 10 Sequential process These stages of sentence production overlap. The first part of the sentence may be articulated when the final part may still be in the planning phase. The jungle was deep and dark with little light to guide our way. Gist Structure Words Phonemes Gist Structure Words Gist Structure Gist 11 Sequential? How do we know that sentence generation is a sequential process? Because of the pauses we make during conversation. Pauses take half of our speaking time. The longer the sentence the longer are the pauses. 12 Linearization Problem The problem of arranging words in an ordered linear sequence that represent a thought or an image. Linearization becomes a problem when many ideas are being simultaneously described.
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5 13 Prosody Requires that a speaker not only stop at the phonetic parts of sentence but also plan intonations and stress of words articulated. Gist Structure Words Phonemes Linearization Prosody 14 Speech Errors 1. One error in 500 sentences. Good accuracy. 2.
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 3153 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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Language Production - Language Production Chapter 10 1...

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