Long-Term Memory

Long-Term Memory - Long-Term Memory Chapter 5 1 Gradient of...

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1 1 Long-Term Memory Chapter 5 2 Gradient of Memory 1. Think of the first day of class and recall as much information as possible do the same for a class last semester. You will realize that recall of information for this class will be greater than the last semester class. 2. It is clear form this demonstration that memories recall is tied up with length of time. 3. Long-term memory (LTM) is long lasting and durable memory comprising of events over a lifetime. 3 Terminology Before going into detail let us familiarize ourselves with a variety of long-term memories.
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2 4 Encoding in Long-Term Memory 5 Depth of Processing 1. Are we likely to remember information that is processed in some deep meaningful way or in a shallow superficial way? 2. Craik and Lockhart (1972) carried out a study to address this question explicitly. 3. They designed stimulus items that manipulated three levels of processing. 6 Levels of Processing “Whale” Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Encoding Shallow Intermediate Deep Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? Phonemic Encoding Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a ____ in the street. Semantic Encoding
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3 7 Recognition Test 20 40 60 80 Percent Recognized Structural Phonemic Semantic 8 Depth of Processing: Factors 1. There are two factors that affect depth of processing: distinctiveness and elaboration. 2. Distinctiveness: refers to an aspect(s) of a stimulus that stands out from other stimuli, thus we process the stimulus more deeply which stands out. 3. Elaboration: means rich processing of information in terms of meaning and related concepts. More elaborative rehearsal better recall. 9 Elaborative Rehearsal 1. She cooked the _______. rabbit or rock Less Elaboration More Elaboration 2. The great bird swooped down and carried off the struggling ________. rabbit or rock To test this idea Crick and Lockhart (1975) carried out another study and demonstrated that when sentences were more elaborate in structure, recall improved.
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4 10 Recall Test 20 40 60 80 Percent Recalled Less More Elaboration 11 Elaborative Rehearsal Other research has shown that deep processing enhances our memories for faces, for instance if faces were judged as honest versus how wide was the nose (Bloom & Mudd, 1991; Sporer, 1991). 12 Self-Reference Effect 1. Recall of information improves when information is related to ourselves, called the self-reference effect . 2. Rogers et al., (1977) used depth of processing model along with the self-reference as one condition to assess recall, and found that recall was superior when it was related to self- reference.
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5 13 Self-Reference Effect 0 25 50 75 100 Physical Characteristics Acoustic Characteristics Semantic Characteristics Self-reference Characteristics Depth of Processing Recall (%) 14 Self-Reference Effect: Reasons 1. The concept of “self,” has a rich and organized set of internal mental cues (like “my room”) to which information can be associated (Bellezza,
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Long-Term Memory - Long-Term Memory Chapter 5 1 Gradient of...

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