Metacognition

Metacognition - Memory Strategies and Metacognition Chapter...

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1 1 Memory Strategies and Metacognition Chapter 6 2 Memory: Applications 1. We have looked at working memory and long- term memory as basic scientific constructs. We will now look at practical devices of improving these memories. 2. Different memorization strategies aid recall for a variety of content. An essay type exam may require extensive reading, a math exam, learning abbreviations; and a foreign language memorization of new vocabulary use of acronyms. 3 Memory Strategies
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2 4 Memory Strategies 1. When you use memory strategies , you perform mental activities that can help you improve your encoding and retrieval (Bransford et al., 2000; Herrmann et al., 2002). 2. Let us review what we have studied so far in the course and see if they relate to this present topic. 5 Divided Attention 1. Suppose you were engaged in a divided attention task, like paying attention to your cognitive psychology professor and thinking about the coming weekend. Would you retain all what your professor lectures? 2. The answer probably would be, not all. Research confirms that (deWinstanley & Bjork, 2002; Naveh-Benjamin et al., 1998; Payne et al., 1999). 6 Divided Attention 3. But divided attention can affect us differently. How about preparing for an exam and listening to music at the same time. Is this a good memory strategy to learn for the exam? 4. The answer “it depends”. Depends on the individual who is learning. If he is an extrovert music will have little interference on memory, however if he is an introvert they are more disturbed by such divide attention tasks.
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3 7 Levels of Processing 1. Clearly the most effective way to memorize a task is to understand it on a semantic level (deep processing) compared to elementary structural processing which is shallow. 2. Deep processing of material entails elaboration , and shallow only maintenance rehearsal. 3. What affects our depth of processing is distinctiveness of material. If the material stands out, it is processed at deeper levels. 8 Levels of Processing: Self-Reference Effect 4. Depth of processing using semantic procedures work well for explicit but less for implicit tasks. 5. An extreme form of deep level of processing material is the self-reference effect . In which the material to be learnt is related to your own experience. 9 Encoding Specificity 1. Encoding specificity principle states that recall is better in a context where the original items to- be-remembered were learned. 2. Scuba divers recalled more words underwater if they learnt the list underwater, and recalled more words on land if they learned the list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975).
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4 10 Overconfidence 1. One problem with retrieval of memory is overconfidence. Many a time when we think about flash bulb (autobiographical) memories, we are confident that we remember fine details of the event. 2. But in most cases such confidence is
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 3153 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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Metacognition - Memory Strategies and Metacognition Chapter...

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