Perceptual Processes

Perceptual Processes - Perceptual Processes I Visual and...

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1 1 Perceptual Processes I: Visual and Auditory Recognition Chapter 2 2 Perception: An Introduction Perception is a mental (cognitive) process that involves using previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli gathered by the senses. Thus perception involves input and recognition of sensory experience. Receptor (Taste bud) Saline solution Sensation refers to activation of the receptors in the sense organs by stimulation. Salt can activate a taste bud. 3 Background on Visual Object Recognition
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2 4 Object Recognition During object recognition you identify arrangement of sensory stimuli and perceive a pattern separate from background. www.genrecookshop.com 5 Perceptual Stimuli 1. Psychologists talk about two kinds of perceptual stimuli. Distal stimulus (the object) and the proximal stimulus (the retinal image). 2. When an object is recognized, the identity of the distal stimulus is determined, even though the information in the proximal stimulus is not perfect (Kersten et al., 2004; Pasternak et al., 2003). Distal Stimulus Proximal Stimulus 6 Visual System 3. Retinal image (proximal stimulus) then moves thorough the visual pathway and reaches the primary visual cortex (and other cortical areas) to be processed for perception.
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3 7 Perceptual Framework 8 Organization in Visual Perception 1. It take less than 100ms (1/10 sec) to recognize an object. Iconic memory helps. But how do we recognize objects midst a background? 2. Gestalt psychologists suggested that human beings have an innate tendency (law of Prägnanz) to organize visual images into patterns ( figure ), and the rest as background . 9 Organization in Visual Perception 3. Figure (object) has definite shape (but see illusory contours below), seems closer and more dominant than the background. See reversible figure. 4. Explanation of reversible has two components. A. Neurons in the visual system become adapted to say the faces and then switch to the vase, and vice versa. B. We solve visual paradox problems by alternating between two reasonable solutions. Reversible Figure
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4 10 Organization in Visual Perception 6. We perceive figure-ground relationships even when the scene has no clear cut boundary. This is observed in illusory contours . 7. The inverted triangle is perceived in front of the upright triangle and circles. The color of the triangle seems brighter than the background. Illusory Contours 11 Organization in Visual Perception 8. We believe in is our ability to perceive objects and deem them stable. Figures or objects remain perceptually constant even though our proximal stimulation may change. 9. Perceptual mechanisms constantly readjust proximal stimulation, to maintain perceptual constancy. So memory plays an important role and compensating changes in confusing stimuli.
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