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Perceptual Processes II

Perceptual Processes II - Attentionand Consciousness...

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1 Perceptual Processes II: Attention and Consciousness Chapter 3 2 Attention “[Attention] is taking possession of the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought… It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.” (William James, Principles of Psychology) William James (1842 1910) 3 Attention Attention is a cognitive process with which we sample limited amount of information from a large body of information (Posner & Fernandez Duque, 1999). This information may be conscious or unconscious (Sternberg, 2003), inside or outside the individual.
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4 Do this! Circle one hand on your stomach and the other on your head. Now, think about your mother or a close relative and carefully notice their facial features (keep circling those hands). Additionally feel the hardness or softness of your chair, feel your clothes, pressure of your shoes on your toes. Are you still circling your hands? (Sternberg, 2003). 5 Three Kinds of Attention Processes 6 Limited Attention 1. Mental resources are limited, and attention uses these resources carefully. 2. Based on limited resources an individual can focus only on restricted amount of information. 3. So we can see either the vase or the faces at any one time. Vase or two faces
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7 Limited Attention Q. Is limited attention a drawback? A. No. Focusing on one piece of information makes us respond faster. This should be recognized as an important factor in operations like problem solving, and memorization. Necker Cube 8 Divided Attention 1. Since attention gets limited amount of access to cognitive functions, divided attention can lead to compromises in planned action. 2. It may have devastating consequences in the form of accidents. From people talking on the cell phones and driving, to air traffic control accidents. 3. Most studies test divided attention during driving, and indicate that driving and engaging in another task has devastating effect on driving. 9 Divided Attention & Practice 1. Some tasks that require divided attention improve with practice. Students were asked to read stories silently and copy words in a dictation. At first it was difficult to do both tasks, but eventually with practice the task performance improved in terms of accuracy and speed (Neisser, ??). 2. Experience seems to play some role in driving and doing other tasks. Experience drivers can drive and engage in other tasks in less than 3 seconds, compared to novices.
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10 Try This: Read Red Somewhere Among hidden the in most the spectacular Rocky Mountains cognitive near abilities Central City is Colorado the an ability old to miner select hid one a message box from of another. gold. We Although do several this hundred by people focusing have our looked attention for on it, certain they cues have such not as found type it of yet style .
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