Problem Solving

# Problem Solving - Problem Solving Chapter 11 1 What is a...

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1 1 Problem Solving Chapter 11 2 What is a problem? Problem can generally be defined as an obstacle , that remains perplexing until solved. 3 Reactions to a Problem 1. Problem exists, but the individual is not cognizant of it. 2. Problem exists and the individual is aware of it, however lacks the motivation to solve it. 3. The individual is aware of the problem, however does not know how to solve it or is in the process of solving it, and perhaps shows distress. 4. The individual has solved the problem and shows satisfaction.

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2 4 Kinds of Problems 5 Arrangement Problems Jig-saw Puzzles Requires recognition and transformation to solve 6 Arrangement Problems RWAET KEROJ MSROPBLE AYXW Rearrange the letters to make words.
3 7 Solution Water Joker Problems Waxy Requires recognition and transformation to solve. 8 Arrangement Problems Remove four lines so that you end up with 5 equal sized squares. 9 Solution Requires trial and error and transformation to solve.

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4 10 How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles? Arrangement Problems 11 Solution Requires trial and error and transformation to solve. 12 Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board? Arrangement Problems (Duncker, 1945)
5 13 Solution Requires trial and error and transformation to solve. 14 Arrangement Problems Requires trial and error and transformation to solve. ?? Join two ends of the ropes hanging from the ceiling with a knot. Materials provided: cotton balls, screw driver and match box. 15 Arrangement Problems Cross-word Puzzles Requires recall and transformation to solve

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6 16 Transformation Problems Maze Problems Requires trial and error and sequential steps to solve. 17 Transformation Problems Tower of Hanoi Requires trial and error and sequential steps to solve. 18 Structure Problems Problems with word, symbols, e.g., Series problems in math. Requires sequence/transformation. A. 1 2 8 3 4 6 5 6 __ B. A B M C D M _ _ Requires recognition, mental and cognitive processes.
7 19 Kinds of Problems Problems can be of many kinds but they require both mental and manual activity for solution. Solving a jigsaw puzzle is manual in nature but requires active mental acumen to place the pieces of puzzles in the correct place. Solving a math problem requires mental activity but the solver presents the solution on paper using hands and fingers. 20 Solution to Problems 1. Initial State : Describes the situation at the beginning of the problem. 2. Obstacles : Describes the restrictions that make it difficult to reach the goal state. 3. Goal State: Reaching the solution to the problem. Obstacles Goal State Initial State 21 Steps to Solution Steps Condition Initial State I need to go to the library to study. Dorm is noisy and is far away from the library.

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Problem Solving - Problem Solving Chapter 11 1 What is a...

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