Working Memory

Working Memory - Working Memory Chapter 4 1 Working Memory...

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1 1 Working Memory Chapter 4 2 Working Memory Some memories are very fragile and go into oblivion very quickly. Working memory is one such memory. 1. Try this. Do this mentally. Write your answers on paper. a. 7 X 9 = b. 74 X 9 = c. 74 X 96 = 63 666 7104 3 Working Memory (WM) 1. We know attention is limited. So information that gets to memory is also limited. Thus capacity of working memory is limited. 2. Working memory is brief, immediate memory we use for current information. A portion of working memory coordinates ongoing mental activities. 3. Working memory has been known as short-term memory, and is contrasted from long-term. Some investigators believe the two are the same (Nairne, 2002).
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2 4 Classic Research on Working Memory (Short-term Memory) 5 Short-term Memory In the 19 th century, Sir George Hamilton discovered that he could accurately store about 7 items (marbles) in memory if he glanced at the items quickly. If the items were more than 7 his accuracy decreased. Sir George Hamilton 6 Short-term Memory George Miller 1. Miller (1956) wrote, “The magical number seven plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information”. 2. Miller suggested that the capacity of our short-term memory was small. We could store about 5-9 items in it. 3. He also showed that items could be “chunked”, which would increase our memory capacity.
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3 7 Try This ! R E C A L L ! C T A I I L T C S F R O R E C A L L ! F R A C T O L I S T I C 8 Another Example 870 + 230 + 5 3 3 9 (1) (1) (4) Capacity of short-term memory may be increased by a process called “chunking”. 870-230-5339 (10 items) 2 chunks + 4 items (6 items) 9 Miller’s Memory Miller thus conceived of short-term memory as a passive store capable of holding 7±2 items or chunks. Working Memory 7 5 870 apple 1876 P water 3 Z
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4 10 Short-term Memory: Duration Brown (1958) Peterson and Peterson (1959) used blocking of rehearsal to measure the duration of short-term memory. 11 Short-term Memory: Duration These experiments suggested that duration of information in short-term memory stays for about 18 seconds and then decays, unless rehearsed. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Percent Correct Recall Time Delay (Seconds) 12 Recency Effect 1. Short-term memory (and long-term memory) have been studied through serial position effect procedures, which generate a U-shaped curve. 2. When a list of items are recalled, items at the beginning of the list and at the end of list are recalled more than the items in the middle. This is called the serial position effect. 3. Recall of beginning items refers to primacy effect and the items recalled at the end of the list refer to recency effect .
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5 13 Recency Effect 4. Recency effect can also determine the capacity of short-term memory. Short-term
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Working Memory - Working Memory Chapter 4 1 Working Memory...

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