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Homeostasis - Homeostasis Active Regulation of Internal...

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1 Homeostasis: Active Regulation of Internal States Chapter 13 2 Internal States Hormones Nutrients Fat Storage Fluid Balance Temperature Food energy Internal State Over the course of evolution numerous factors have contributed to maintaining an optimal internal state in the context of ever changing external factors. 3 Modern World Optimal maintenance of internal states in modern times have been jeopardized. Hormonal problems Back problems Stroke Heart Disease Diabetes Fat Regulation (obesity)
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4 Redundancy The homeostatic mechanisms are build around redundant systems. So if one fails the other can take over. Shedding excess Conserving supplies Monitoring the store System (food) Nervous System Behavior 5 Negative Feedback Homeostatic systems are maintained by negative feedback system. 1. Set Point (set range) 2. Sensing device 3. Regulatory device 6 Temperature Regulation All body chemical reactions are temperature dependant. Too low temperatures and these chemical processes slow down or even stop. And higher temperatures mean protein molecules enmesh and don’t function properly.
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7 Environmental Temperature Environmental temperature can lead to aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with temperature in Houston. 8 Acquisition of Heat Animals use different methods to regulate body heat. Some regulate it largely from inside and some maneuver themselves to find environments ʹ that are either higher or lower in temperature. Cold-blooded Warm-blooded Ectotherm Endotherm 9 Evolution of Endothermy Endothermy is a costly process. Why did evolution favor such a process? 1. More freedom and independence in locomotion. 2. Greater capacity of oxygen consumption and thus prolonged aerobic activity.
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10 Metabolism Breaking down of food leads to release of heat energy. 11 Heat Production Release of heat per surface area. 12 Insulation Evolutionary ways of regulating heat.
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13 Carotid Rete Specialized ways of regulating temperature 14 Ectotherms Harnessing the heat from the sun. 15 Superorganism Heat regulation in multiple animals working as one superorganism.
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16 Hypothalamus Preoptic area (POA) in the hypothalamus regulates conscious control of heat regulation and lateral hypothalamus (LH) autonomic responses. 17 Hypothalamus Multiple regions in the nervous system maintain different set zones to regulate temperature.
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