Neuroanatomy

Neuroanatomy - Neuroanatomy Structural and morphological...

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1 Neuroanatomy Structural and morphological details of the brain Chapter 2 2 History From the time of Galen, and perhaps even before, brain was considered a gland. Thinkers believed that nerves secreted fluids from the brain and spinal cord to the periphery. Galen (130-200 AD) 3 Luigi Galvani Nerves and muscles produced electricity. Galvani thought that “animal electricity” was a fluid secreted by the brain via the nerves to the muscles. (1737-1798 AD)
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4 Camillo Golgi Golgi develops the silver method to stain the nerve tissue. Believed that neurons connected in a “syncitium”, connecting by blending. This theory was called “reticular theory”. (1737-1798 AD) 5 Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) Neurons are separate cells. Neurons communicate through gaps later came to be known as synapse. This came to be known as the “neuron doctrine”. 6 Two Levels of Neuroanatomy 1. Neuroanatomy at the macro level a. Systems, Divisions and Lobes b. Nuclei c. Ganglions, fibers and tracts 2. Neuroanatomy at the micro level a. Glia b. Neuron
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7 Divisions Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System 8 Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Controls the viscera (organs) Process sensory information and controls the voluntary muscle movements 9 Cranial Nerves I. Olfactory II. Optic III. Oculomotor IV. Trochlear V. Trigeminal VI. Abducens VII. Facial VIII. Vestibulocochlear IX. Glossopharyngeal X. Vagus XI. Spinal Accessory XII. Hypoglossal Sensory Motor Both On Old Olympic Towering Tops A Famous Vocal German Viewed Some Hops
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10 Cranial Nerves I. Olfactory Nerve Sensory nerve. Carries sensation of smell or olfaction. 11 Cranial Nerves II. Optic Nerve Sensory Nerve. Conveys visual information from the retina to the striate cortex. http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk 12 Cranial Nerves III. Oculomotor Nerve Motor nerve. Controls the four out of the six muscles of the eye. Pupillary response to the intensity of light. http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/resources/wwwcal/cranial_nerves/page3.asp
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13 Cranial Nerves IV. Trochlear Nerve Motor Nerve. Connects to the superior oblique muscle, turns eye downward and laterally. http://www.teaching-biomed.man.ac.uk/resources/wwwcal/cranial_nerves/page3.asp 14 Cranial Nerves V. Trigeminal Nerve Both a sensory and motor nerve. Chewing face & mouth touch & pain 15 Cranial Nerves VI. Abducens Nerve Motor nerve. Connects to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye.
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course PSY 4293 taught by Professor Ahmad during the Fall '09 term at Henderson.

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Neuroanatomy - Neuroanatomy Structural and morphological...

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