Neuroendocrinology

Neuroendocrinology - Neuroendocrinology Hormones and their...

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1 Neuroendocrinology Hormones and their effect on body and brain Chapter 5 2 Hormones Hormones – (Greek, “to excite”) chemical messengers in the bloodstream released by endocrine glands. 3 Endocrine System
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4 History Aristotle (384-322 BC) observed changes and compared behaviors in men and birds when castrated. Phlegm Blood Black bile Yellow bile Fluid Sluggish Phlegmatic Optimistic Sanguine Depressed Melancholic Irritable Choleric Character Temperament Body Fluids and Temperaments 5 Arnold Berthold If male chicks were castrated early in development they loose their sexual drive and secondary sexual characteristics. 6 Experiment
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7 Testes Replaced Group When testes is replaced in the abdominal cavity it establishes blood supply (not nerves) and the rooster develops normal sexual behavior and secondary sexual characteristics. So there had to be some chemicals that lead to such changes. Indeed testes secrete testosterone hormone! 8 Claude Bernard Internal environment is independently regulated in the ever changing external environment. (1813-1878) 9 Walter Cannon Homeostasis: Based on Bernard’s ideas Cannon proposed the concept of homeostasis which is a constant internal environment by an array of mechanisms in the body including the endocrine system. 1871-1945
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10 Synaptic Communication Synaptic communication or neurocrine function is chemical communication between neurons at the synaptic cleft or neurons releasing chemical onto blood vessels. 11 Autocrine Communication Autocrine Communication involves chemical activity that regulates cell’s own functions. Negative feedback effect of NT on autocrine receptors to control NT release. 12 Paracrine Communication Paracrine Communication involves regulating chemicals that affect distant target cells.
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13 Endocrine Communication Endocrine Communication involves chemicals that travel via blood vessels to effect/regulate distant target tissue. 14 Pheromone Communication Pheromone Communication involves chemicals that travel outside the body of an animal to affect the behavior of another animal of the same specie. 15 Allomone Communication Allomone Communication involves chemicals that travel outside the body of an animal/plant to affect the behavior of another animal of the another specie. Pitcher plant releasing chemicals to entice insects.
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16 Hormonal-Neural Communication Analog messages (graded) Digitized messages (all-or-none) Slower messages, on the order of seconds or minutes. Rapid message on the order of milliseconds. Works like television system. Communicates messages through blood vessels affecting many cells at the same time. Works like telephone system. Communicates messages through fixed anatomical connections to specific cells/targets.
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Neuroendocrinology - Neuroendocrinology Hormones and their...

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