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Psychopharmacology

Psychopharmacology - Psychopharmacology Neurotransmitters...

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1 Psychopharmacology Neurotransmitters and Drugs in the Brain Chapter 4 2 Drugs and Brain Most drugs affect the brain and behavior by changing synaptic transmission. In this chapter we will discuss drugs that affect neurotransmitters in the brain. 3 Psychopharmacology 1. Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on affect, cognition, and behavior. 2. The term drug has many meanings: Medication to treat a disease A chemical that is likely to be abused An “exogenous” chemical that significantly alters the function of certain bodily cells when taken in relatively low doses (chemical that is NOT required for normal cellular functioning)
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4 Psychopharmacology Modern study of psychopharmacology is intimately linked with the study of neurotransmitters (NT). Neurotransmitters generally have widespread effects within the brain, drugs on the other hand can be very specifically targeted in the brain cells. 5 Criteria for NT 1. Substance must exist in the presynaptic terminals. 2. Enzymes for synthesis are present in the terminals or cell body. 3. Nerve impulse (action potential) releases significant amounts of the substance. 6 Criteria for NT 4. Substance binds to receptors on the postsynaptic cell. 5. Experimental application of the substance produces changes in the postsynaptic cell. 6. Blocking substance makes nerve impulse ineffectual for postsynaptic cell.
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7 Receptors Same neurotransmitter may have different effects at different postsynaptic sites. For example in ionotropic a neurotransmitter may open (fast) ion channels. And in metabotropic receptors these receptors may trigger cascade (slow) of events in manipulating channels. Ionotropic Metabotropic 8 Kinds of NT 9 Kinds of NT
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10 Acetylcholine (ACh) Synthesis of ACh Acetyl CoA + Choline CoA + ACh 11 ACh Route ACh synthesis and delivery. http://www.nature.com 12 ACh Inactivation & Facilitation Hemicholium inhibits the reuptake of choline. ACh release is blocked by botulinum toxin. ACh release is promoted by black widow spider venom and Neostygmine which interferes with AChE activity.
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13 Nicotinic Receptors Nicotinic receptors (ionotropic) are found in skeletal muscle (peripheral nervous system). Agonists: ACh, nicotine Antagonists: d - tubocurarine and curare Curare 14 Muscarinic Receptors Muscarinic receptors (metabotropic receptors, M1-5) are found in heart, smooth muscle and brain (central nervous system) Agonists: ACh, muscarine Antagonists: Atropine and scopolamine Atropine 15 Myasthenia Gravis In the peripheral nervous system, ACh neurons are found in, autonomic ganglia (e.g. the heart), and the neuromuscular junction. Myasthenia gravis paralytic disease of the muscles results from reduction in ACh. Myasthenia gravis causing dropping eyelid. When AChE is blocked, leading to an increase in ACh the condition is ameliorated.
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