Feb_24_2010-1 - 17-1Chapter 17Equilibrium: The Extent of...

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Unformatted text preview: 17-1Chapter 17Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions17-2Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical ReactionsEquilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions17.1The Equilibrium State and the Equilibrium Constant17.2The Reaction Quotient and the Equilibrium Constant17.3Expressing Equilibria with Pressure Terms: Relation between Kcand Kp17.4Reaction Direction: Comparing Qand K17.5How to Solve Equilibrium Problems17.6Reaction Conditions and the Equilibrium State: Le Chateliers Principle17-3Kineticsapplies to the speedof a reaction, the concentration of product that appears (or of reactant that disappears) per unit time.Equilibriumapplies to the extentof a reaction, the concentrations of reactant product present after an unlimited time, or once no further change occurs.At equilibrium: rateforward= ratereverseA system at equilibrium is dynamicon the molecular level; no further net change is observed because changes in one direction are balanced by changes in the other.17-4If rateforward= ratereversethen kforward[reactants]m= kreverse[products]n== Kthe equilibrium constantkforwardkreverse[products]n[reactants]mThe values of m and n are those of the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. Note that this is equilibrium, not kinetics.The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal, NOT the concentrations of reactants and products.This is also known as the LAW OF MASS ACTION.17-5Figure 17.2The range of equilibrium constants.small Klarge Kintermediate K17-6Q - The Reaction QuotientAt any time, t, the system can be sampled to determine the amounts of reactants and products present. A ratio of products to reactants, calculated in the same manner as Ktells us whether the system has come to equilibrium (Q= K) or whether the reaction has to proceed further from reactants to products (Q< K) or in the reverse direction from products to reactants (Q> K).We use the molar concentrations of the substances in the reaction. This is symbolized by using square brackets, [ ]....
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Feb_24_2010-1 - 17-1Chapter 17Equilibrium: The Extent of...

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