Lec1.6%20LTM-1 - LONG
TERM
MEMORY
...

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Unformatted text preview: LONG
TERM
MEMORY
 Long
Term
Memory
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Dura5on:
Long
 Capacity:
Unlimited
 Highly
organized
 Coding
is
mul5dimensional
 Rela5vely
permanent

 gives
us
con5nuity
of
consciousness
 Is
both
retrospec5ve
and
prospec5ve
 How
do
our
experiences
get
turned
 into
informa5on
in
our
brain?
 •  One
aspect
of
memory
is
geJng
the
 informa5on
in
the
first
place
(encoding)
 •  Once
informa5on
is
encoded,
it
must
be
 stored
within
our
brains
(storage)
 •  Finally
aPer
encoding
and
storing
the
 informa5on,
you
must
be
able
to
retrieve
it
 (retrieval)
 Study
this
list
of
words
 •  Window
 •  
rock
 •  
jail
 •  
orange
 •  
chair
 •  
fugi5ve

 •  steam

 •  Dress
 •  
computer
 •  
giraffe

 •  Pa5ent
 •  
s5ck
 •  Write
down
as
many
words
as
you
can
recall
 Serial
Posi5on
Curve
 Recency
 Primacy
 •  Primacy
=
occurs
because
info.
Is
greatly
 rehearsed
 –  First‐5me
impression
hard
to
erase?
 •  Recency
=
occurs
because
informa5on
is
s5ll
in
 STM
 Serial
Posi5on
Effects
 •  The primacy
effect
can
be
improved
if
items
at
the
 beginning
are
presented
slowly
 •  The
recency
effect
appears
when
the
memory
test
is
 immediate,
but
no
recency
effect
occurs
if
the
 memory
test
is
delayed
(and
interfered)
for
30
 seconds
 How
could
you
improve
the
recency
 effect?
 •  Review
 •  Put
away
 •  Come
back
to
it…

LTM
 Why
do
we
not
remember
the
items
in
 the
middle?
 Because
of
proac5ve
and
retroac5ve
 interference
 
‐First
items
keep
us
from
learning
new
info
(PI)
 
‐Last
items
keeps
us
from
recalling
old
info
(RI)
 Memory Declarative Explicit Nondeclarative Implicit Semantic Facts Episodic Events Skills Motor Perceptual Cognitive Priming Perceptual Semantic Dispositions Classical Conditioning Nonassociative Habituation Sensitization Many
Terms
Used
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Explicit
 Conscious
 Fact
 Declara5ve
Memory
 Knowing
that
 Locale
 Cogni5ve
media5on
 Elabora5on
 Memory
with
record
 Ex:
recall
or
recogni5on
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Implicit
 Unconscious
 Skill
 Procedural
 Habit
 Knowing
how
 Integra5on
 Perceptual
 Memory
without
record
 Ex:
word‐comple5on
 Explicit
Memory
 EPISODIC 
 

 •  Personally
experienced
 events
 •  Mental
5me
travel
that
 revisits
past
experiences
 •  Self‐Knowing
 SEMANTIC
 •  Facts,
knowledge
about
the
 world
 •  Knowledge,
without
mental
 5me
travel
 •  Knowing
 Hemispheric
Encoding/Retrieval
 Assymmetry
Model
(HERA)
 •  LeP
PFC

 –  retrieves
seman5c
memories
 –  encodes
episodic
memories
 •  Right
PFC

 –  retrieves
episodic
memories
 •  The
paaern
holds
for
verbal
material,
pictures,
 and
faces.
 Prospec5ve
memory
 •  Memory
for
future
events
 •  Self‐ini5ated
 •  Ex:
Remembering
to
contact
my
group
 members
to
brainstorm
ideas
for
the
MoM
 •  Time
based
 •  Event
based
 Procedural
Memory
 •  Memory
that
enables
you
to
perform
specific
 learned
skills
or
habitual
responses
 –  Tying
your
shoe
laces
 –  Riding
a
bike
 •  Implicit
=
contents
cannot
be
readily
described
 Priming
 •  The
influence
of
one
memory
on
another
 thought
or
ac5on
 •  It
does
not
depend
on
awareness
and
is
 automa5c
 –  Perceptual
–
based
on
physical
features
 –  Conceptual
–
based
on
seman5c
meaning
 Priming

 •  Unscramble
the
 following
words:
 •  O
R
E
S

 •  L
T
E
P
A
 •  K
T
A
L
S

 •  TSME

 •  L
O
B
S
O
M
S
 •  ELAF
   ROSE   PETAL   STALK   STEM   BLOSSOM Priming
 •  ELAF
=
LEAF
 •  Why
not
respond
 FLEA?
 •  Because
flower
parts
 were
primed
 
(flower
power)
 Nonassocia5ve
learning
 •  Habitua5on

 –  Reduced
behavioral
response
aPer
repeated
exposure
 to
s5mulus
 •  E.g.
Get
dressed
and
don’t
feel
clothes
aPer
5
min.
 •  Sensi5za5on
 –  Increased
behavioral
response
aPer
repeated
 exposure
to
s5mulus
 •  E.g.
Rub
your
arm
con5nuously:
feel
warm,
then
 feel
pain
 How
do
we
store
informa5on
in
LTM?
 •  Maintenance
rehearsal
–
not
effec5ve
 •  Elabora5ve
rehearsal
–
effec5ve
 –  Levels
of
processing
 •  Memory
depends
on
how
informa5on
is
processed
 •  Shallow
and
deep
 






Ways
to
elaborate:
 –  Relate
old
informa5on
to
new
informa5on
 –  Ac5vely
ques5on
new
informa5on
 –  Think
about
its
implica5ons
 –  Generate
own
examples
of
concepts
 –  Don’t
highlight
passage
as
you
read
 •  focus
on
the
ideas
in
the
text
 •  Conclusion:
Let
it
simmer…
 Levels
of
Processing
 Physical,
phonological,
seman5c
 Shallow
 
 

 •  Liale
aaen5on
to
meaning
 •  Aaen5on
is
focused
on
 physical
features
 •  Used
during
maintenance
 rehearsal 

 Deep
 •  Close
aaen5on
 •  Make
connec5ons
between
 concepts
 •  Use
imagery
 •  Relate
new
informa5on
to
 self
 •  Group
and
organize
 informa5on
 •  Create
complex
sentences
 •  Memory
is
most
effec5ve
when
processing
at
 encoding
overlaps
processing
to
be
performed
at
 retrieval
 –  For
seman5c
retrieval,
use
seman5c
encoding
 –  For
perceptual
retrieval,
use
perceptual
encoding
 –  Example
=
GRE
 So,
from
now
on…
 –  Relate
old
informa5on
to
new
informa5on
 –  Ac5vely
ques5on
new
informa5on
 –  Think
about
its
implica5ons
 –  Generate
your
own
examples
of
concepts
 –  Don’t
passively
highlight
passage
as
you
read
 •  focus
on
the
ideas
in
the
text
 –  Take
breaks
 •  Recency
effect
and
distributed
prac5ce,
remember?
 –  Sleep
well

 How
are
memories
stored
in
the
brain?
 •  Hebb
(1948)
–
Physiological
events
at
the
synapse
(chemical
 reac5ons)
cause
structural
changes
in
neurons
 •  Long‐term
poten5a5on
(LTP)
 –  Enhanced
firing
of
neurons
aPer
repeated
s5mula5on
 How
are
memories
stored
in
the
brain?
 •  Memories
are
fragile
 •  Consolida5on
–
from
a
fragile
to
a
permanent
state
 –  Involves
the
reorganiza5on
of
the
brain
 –  Synap5c
consolida5on
=
takes
a
few
minutes
 –  Systems
consolida5on
=
takes
weeks,
months,
or
years
 •  Standard
Model
of
Consolida5on
–
memory
retrieval
depends
 on
the
hippocampus
during
consolida5on
only.
 Reac5va5on
 •  The
process
of
replaying
neural
ac5vity
associated
with
a
 memory
in
the
hippocampus
 •  This
ac5vity
results
in
the
forma5on
of
connec5ons
between
 cor5cal
areas
 •  Reac5va5on
occurs
during
sleep,
relaxed
wakefulness,
or
the
 conscious
rehearsal
of
a
memory
 •  Lesson:
read
the
chapter,
talk
about
it,
and
go
to
bed!
 Emo5onally
charged
memories
 60
 50
 Percent
 40
 words
 recalled
 30
 20
 10
 0
 Emo5onal
 Neutral
 20
 15
 Percent
 pictures
 10
 recognized
 5
 0
 Emo5onal
 Neutral
 How
do
we
retrieve
memories
from
LTM?
 •  Memories
may
be
available
but
not
accessible
 •  Retrieval
cues
‐
loca5on
 •  Encoding
specificity
 –  We
learn
informa5on
along
with
its
context
 •  State‐dependent
specificity
 –  Moods,
states
of
awareness
(yeap,
being
drunk
 counts)
 Encoding
Specificity
   Learn
word
list
   generate
‘cue’
when
see
 word
(jam
‐
jelly)
   at
recall
cues
given
as
 retrieval
aid
 (jelly
or
traffic)
   Cues
generated
during
learning
 (jelly)
more
effec5ve
during
 retrieval
than
new
cues
(traffic)
 Context‐Dependent
Memory
 •  Improved
ability
to
remember
if
tested
in
the
same
 environment
as
the
ini5al
learning
environment
 –  beaer
recall
if
tested
in
classroom
where
you
 ini5ally
learned
info
than
if
moved
to
a
new
 classroom
 –  if
learning
room
smells
of
chocolate
or
mothballs,
 people
will
recall
more
info
if
tested
in
room
with
 the
same
smell
compared
to
different
smell
or
no
 smell
at
all
 Context‐Dependent
Effects
 •  Compare
words
learned
underwater
vs
on
land
 •  Words
heard
underwater
are
best
recalled
underwater
 •  Words
heard
on
land
are
best
recalled
on
land
 Context
Dependent
Effects
 •  Time
of
day
is
also
important
 Learn
at
3
pm
 
12
 9
 6
 3
 9
 6
 Perform
beaer
at
3
pm
 
12
 3
 9
 6
 Than
9
pm
 
12
 3
 State‐Dependent
Memory
 •  Recall
improved
if
internal
physiological
or
emo5onal
state
is
 the
same
during
tes5ng
and
ini5al
encoding
 •  Context
vs
State
dependent
 –  Context‐dependent
‐
external,
environmental
factors
 –  State‐dependent
‐
internal,
physiological
factors
 Construc5ve
Nature
of
LTM
 Construc5ve
Nature
of
LTM
 •  Prior
experience
influences
how
we
recall
 informa5on
 •  Having
retrieval
cues
can
help
us
recall
more
 informa5on,
but
cues
can
also
lead
to
errors
 How
to
measure
memory
 •  Recall
vs.
Recogni5on
 •  Free
recall:

any
order
 •  Serial‐recall
:
specific
order
 •  Cued‐recall:

one
item
of
the
pair
is
given
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/09/2010 for the course CHEM 1332 taught by Professor Halasyamani during the Spring '10 term at University of Houston-Victoria.

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