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Unformatted text preview: DOI: 10.1126/science.1167345 , 773 (2009); 323 Science et al. J. Mark Rowland, Facultative Male Trimorphism in Beetles Two Thresholds, Three Male Forms Result in This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. . clicking here colleagues, clients, or customers by , you can order high-quality copies for your If you wish to distribute this article to others . here following the guidelines can be obtained by Permission to republish or repurpose articles or portions of articles (this information is current as of January 12, 2010 ): The following resources related to this article are available online at www.sciencemag.org http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/323/5915/773 version of this article at: including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online Updated information and services, http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/323/5915/773/DC1 can be found at: Supporting Online Material http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/323/5915/773#otherarticles , 6 of which can be accessed for free: cites 31 articles This article http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/collection/evolution Evolution : subject collections This article appears in the following registered trademark of AAAS. is a Science 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Copyright American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by the Science on January 12, 2010 www.sciencemag.org Downloaded from Anomalocaris ( 11 ). Lift was also generated by the tail flukes. Schinderhannes shares several characters with anomalocaridids. The morphology and position of the great appendage, which lies at the front of the head and anterior of the eyes, are very similar to that of Appendage F ( 12 ), the frontal appendage of Laggania cambria ( 11 , 13 ). The circular mouth is characteristic of anomalocaridids ( 13 ), and flap- like appendages similar to that at the rear of the head of S. bartelsi occur in the trunk of Anomalo- caris canadensis ( 11 ), Parapeytoia yunnanensis ( 14 ), Pambdelurion whittingtoni ( 15 ), and Keryg- machela kierkegaardi ( 16 ). Other trunk features of Schinderhannes are characteristic of euarthropods, including short great-appendage arthropods. These include the tergites, biramous trunk append- ages, and tail spine. A cladistic analysis ( 17 ) places Schinder- hannes between Anomalocaris and other arthro- pods (Fig. 2). The short great-appendage taxa are paraphyletic, and the monophyly of a taxon Megacheira ( 1 ) was not confirmed. The position of the short great-appendage arthropods as stem lineage representatives of the Chelicerata, howev- er, is consistent with the majority of recent analy- ses ( 2 , 3 , 5 , 18 22 ) and supports the interpretation of the great appendage as homologous with the chelicera of living chelicerates (...
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