Unformatted text preview: Skeletal System Skeletal Skeletal System Skeletal Axial skeleton- includes practically all bones Axial except those of the limbs or appendages. except The bones composing the axial skeleton are The either on the midline , or are attached to the bones of the midline. bones Axial skeleton Axial Functions of the axial skeletal system: Protection Locomotion Hematopoiesis Axial skeleton Axial Cranium Cranium Protects the brain Site of attachment for masticatory musculature Protects fragile turbinates of the sinus Formed by intramembranous ossification Axial skeleton Axial Vertebrae Median, unpaired, irregular bones Protect spinal cord Necessary for locomotion Site of hematopoiesis Axial skeleton- vertebrae Axial Cervical vertebrae Neck region 1st- atlas(C1) 2nd-axis(C2) All domestic mammalian species (including All us) have 7 us) Axial skeleton- vertebrae Axial Thoracic vertebraeThoracic Chest region Variable in number across species Axial skeleton- vertebrae Axial Lumbar vertebrae Lower back region Typically a frequent area of injury Axial skeleton- vertebrae Axial Sacral vertebrae- fused vertebrae in the region Sacral of the pelvis of Rigid structure, much trauma needed to injure Axial skeleton- vertebrae Axial Caudal (coccygeal) vertebrae Tail region Frequently injured Axial skeleton- vertebrae Axial Vertebral formulas Horse-C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd15-20 Cow-C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd18-20 Sheep-C7 T13 L6-7 S4 Cd16-18 Goat-C7 T13 L7 S4 Cd12 Hog-C7 T14-15 L6-7 S4 Cd20-23 Dog-C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd20-23 Man-C7 T12 L5 S5 Cd4 Man-C7 Axial Skeleton-Ribs Axial Protect the thoracic organs Site of attachment for the muscles of Site respiration respiration Typically equal in number to the number of Typically thoracic vertebrae thoracic Axial Skeleton-Ribs Axial Sternal ribs- connect directly to the sternum via costal Sternal cartilages. Also known as “true” ribs. cartilages. Asternal ribs-caudal to the sternal ribs. Indirectly Asternal attached to the sternum by overlapping costal cartilages. Also known as “false” ribs. cartilages. Floating ribs-when present usually the last one or two Floating pairs of ribs. There is no ventral connection to the sternum. Axial Skeleton-Sternebrae Axial Form the floor of the bony thorax Can be a site for hematopoiesis First (most cranial aspect)-manubrium Last (most caudal aspect)-xyphoid process Pig and sheep-6 sternebrae Cow and goat-7 sternebrae Horse and dog-8 sternebrae Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular The bones of the limbs Divided into the bones of the pectoral limbs Divided and the pelvic limbs. and Appendicular Skeleton- pectoral limb limb Scapula Clavicle Humerus Radius Ulna carpus Metacarpus-cannon bone in the horse Phalanges Sesamoid bones Appendicular Skeleton-Pelvic Limb Appendicular Pelvic girdle- ilium, ischium, pelvis Femur Tibia Fibula Tarsus Metatarsus Phalanges Sesamoid bones ...
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- Spring '07
- thoracic vertebrae, Axial skeleton- vertebrae, skeleton- vertebrae Axial, Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular