New_Technologies_lecture_week_10_fall_2009

New_Technologies_lecture_week_10_fall_2009 -...

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Breeding and Genetics Fall 2009
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Cloning defined A technology for producing genetically  identical individuals
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Production of numerous genetically  identical animals to increase uniformity in  a population Greatly reduces the number of animals  needed to effectively do animal research  (Lamberson 1994) Enhance the number of offspring  produced by extremely valuable  seedstock Male vs Female?
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Is there such thing as a true clone in  terms of performance? Environment is a huge component of  quantitative trait performance
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Behavior related to performance is not  “clonable” Temperament is not “clonable” Environment is a huge component of final  phenotype
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Cloning is very expensive Embryonic death loss is very high Especially with clones derived from adult  nuclei The majority of cloned animals are much  larger than normal offspring C-sections Gracie Death after birth
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2002 Live Born Live at 1 week Live at puberty Sheep 28 15 11 Cattle 91 66 60 Goats 17 14 12 Pigs 10 10 10 Mice 126 111 88
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Why are there so many problems? Nuclear reprogramming Epigenetic changes Chemical changes (methylation) during process or  reactivation of cells Gene expression affected during development 
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Adult differentiated cell cloning Are clones more susceptible to adult onset  diseases Telomere shortening Are humans consumers affected by ingesting these  animals? Is it really a clone? Is a cloned animal dangerous to use as a food  animal in the population? Are we creating a deficient animal with  science?
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Using cryogenically stored semen for  reproduction in a female to generate  offspring without natural mating
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Process is thousands of years old Different methods but same result Arab horse breeders in middle east Can use frozen, cooled, fresh semen Must extend frozen or cooled  Egg yolk, glycerin, artificial compounds All cattle breeds allow for registration of  A.I. produced offspring
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Can use genetics from bulls that are  thousands of miles away Access to animals never deemed possible Can store semen and use for breeding on  dead or crippled bulls No risk of injury to bulls during breeding  season Risk to producer
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One ejaculation can yield hundreds of  straws for A.I. Straws are almost universally utilized Can be set directly into the A.I. pipette gun under  sheath Ampules are the old method Glass or plastic Handling issues Generation of large half sib families for  research
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Semen can be sexed Inseminate with only Y or X chromosome  semen Beneficial for the dairy industry when females 
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New_Technologies_lecture_week_10_fall_2009 -...

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