Review_Fall_break_Animal_breeding_and_Genetics_2009

Review_Fall_break_Animal_breeding_and_Genetics_2009 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Breeding and Genetics Fall 2009 Product of large scale genetic evaluation Lists of genetic predictions Accuracy values EPDs Base The level of genetic merit associated with zero Base year The year chosen to represent the base The average EPD of animals born in the base year is zero ABV also referred to as Net Merit Breeding Value for a combination of traits Dairy I ndustry Nucleus Breeding Schemes Breeding program where elite animals are concentrated in a nucleus herd Superior germplasm is then distributed among cooperating herds Natural Service within the nucleus herd AI in cooperative herds Closed Nucleus Breeding Scheme Only herds in the cooperative scheme are eligible for germplasm Nucleus herd only donates to its own cooperators Open Nucleus Breeding Scheme Situation where germplasm is donated to cooperators and cooperators donate back to the nucleus herd I ncorporation of genetics that may not have been available to producers Constant effort to improve traits that are important in an environment similar to producers involved in the co- op Superior animals are removed from individual herds Open nucleus scheme Rely solely on a nucleus herd for improvement Outside genetics typically not incorporated At some point inbreeding becomes an issue Closed nucleus scheme Tandem Selection I ndependent Culling Levels Truncation Selection Economic Selection I ndex Correlated response to selection Genetic change in many traits resulting for the selection of a single trait Positive or negative Pleitropy Direct vs indirect selection Select for a trait to improve that trait Select for a trait to improve a genetically correlated trait Selection for first one trait and then another Most basic method for multiple trait selection Not a very accurate method of multiple trait selection Selection target A level of BV considered optimal in an absolute or practical sense Advantages Make rapid improvement in a single trait Easy Disadvantages Have to go back after a few generations and select for the second trait Typically lose a lot of improvement made on the first trait Minimum standards for traits...
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Review_Fall_break_Animal_breeding_and_Genetics_2009 -...

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