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Lecture 4 Notes d

Lecture 4 Notes d - Lecture 4 Guide September 5 See...

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Lecture 4 Guide September 5 See Readings, Vocabulary and Activities for Chapter 3 Water – (H 2 O) Biological Importance a. Living cells are 70-95% H20 b. Solvent for biological reactions c. 71% of the earth’s surface is covered by H2O Fig 3.2 Hydrogen bonds between water molecules produces cohesion. Water molecule Polar covalent bonds Hydrogen bonds Some Important Properties Of H2O a. High specific heat – 1 cal/g/High specific heat – 1 cal/g/ ˚C (stabilizes temperatures) b. High heat of vaporization – 580 cal/g (produces evaporative cooling) c. Maximum density at 4 C (ecological importance for organisms living in aquatic habitats) This is because: when water is in ice, the molecules are at their greatest distance from each other. When it is heated, the crystal collapses in liquid, and density increases. Heating causes motion in liquid, density decreases ˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚˚ Solutions - A homogenous mixture consisting of a solvent , and solute(s) Water is an excellent solvent for ionic or polar molecules (see Figs. 3.6 and 3.7) Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions Concentration = mass (weight)/volume a.
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