Classical_Conditioning_Mechanisms

Classical_Conditioning_Mechanisms - Classical Conditioning...

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Unformatted text preview: Classical Conditioning Mechanisms What Makes Effective Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli • Initial Response to the Stimuli – CSs and USs are relative • The Novelty of Conditioned Stimuli – CS-Preexposure Effect • Interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the CS before the conditioning trials. What Makes Effective Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli • The Novelty of Unconditioned Stimuli – US Preexposure Effect • Interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the US before the conditioning trials. • CS and US Intensity and Salience – Stimulus salience What Makes Effective Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli Garcia & Koelling (1966) Experiment Group 1) Taste + Audiovisual 2) Taste + Audiovisual Design Conditioning Test Mild Footshock Taste/Audiovisual Cue “Noisy Water” Sickness (LiCl) Taste/Audiovisual What does the Garcia & Koelling (1966) Experiment Tell Us? • Belongingness – certain stimuli are more easily associated together. (i.e., one predisposed to form certain associations more so than others). What Makes Effective Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli • The Concept of Biological Strength – Higher-Order Conditioning • A procedure in which a previously conditioned stimulus (CS1) is used to condition a new stimulus (CS2) – Counterconditioning • A conditioning procedure that reverses the organism’s previous response to a stimulus. Aversive Therapy: • a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (e.g., nausea) with an unwanted behavior. (e.g., the drinking of alcohol) Initially Good Times!! Aversive Conditioning (cont’d) With Treatment Disulfiram (Antabuse) Ethanol Acetaldehyde Acetate Disulfiram Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Clinical Applications of Classical Conditioning to Sexual Deviance Rachman (1966) Study (US) (UR - Arousal) Rachman (1966) cont’d CS No UR (No Arousal) CS US CR - Arousal Treatment of a Fetish CS CR - Arousal Treatment of a Fetish (cont’d) CS CR - No Arousal CS CR - No Arousal What Makes Effective Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli • The Concept of Biological Strength – Sensory Preconditioning • A procedure in which one biologically weak stimulus (CS2) is repeatedly paired with another biologically weak stimulus (CS1). Then, CS1 is conditioned with another US. In a later trial, CS2 also will elicit the CR, even though CS2 was never directly paired with the US. What Determines the Nature of the CR • Stimulus Substitution Model Introduced by Pavlov Organisms come to respond to CSs in much the same way that they respond to USs CS Center US Center BRAIN Response Center Stimulus Substitution Model • A Compensatory CR is an example of Stimulus Substitution Theory. CSs Body’s Reaction Response = Analgesia What Determines the Nature of the CR • US as a Factor for the CR – Jenkins & Moore (1973) Experiment • CS as a Determinant for the CR – Timberlake & Grant (1975) Experiment What Determines the Nature of the CR • Conditioned Behavior and Behavior Systems General Search Behavior Focal Search Behavior Consummatory Behavior (Copulation) CS CS Akins (2000) Experiment US US What Determines the Nature of the CR 1) Stimulus-Stimulus Relationship 2) Stimulus-Response Relationship - S-S Learning CS US CR S-R Learning CS CR How does one distinguish S-S from S-R Learning? 1) US Deflation Technique: • A procedure that reduces the effectiveness of a US to elicit a UR. 2) US Inflation Technique: • A procedure that increases the effectiveness of a US to elicit a UR. US Deflation Technique Rescorla (1971) Phase 1 Tone + Food (Food-Deprived) Tone + Food (Food-Deprived) Phase 2 Free Access to Food Food-Deprived Phase 3 Tone Tone US Deflation Technique (Cont’d) Phase 1 Tone + Food (Food-Deprived) Tone + Food (Food-Deprived) Tone or Tone Salivate CR Salivate CR Food Phase 2 Free Access to Food Phase 3 Tone Food-Deprived Tone Predicted Result Food cr CR Food US Deflation Technique (Cont’d) Phase 1 Tone + Food (Food-Deprived) Tone + Food (Food-Deprived) Tone or Tone Salivate CR Salivate CR Food Phase 2 Free Access to Food Food-Deprived Food Phase 3 Tone Tone cr CR Actual Result Food US Inflation Technique Rescorla & Freburg (1978) Phase 1 Quinine + Salt Mixed together Quinine / Salt Separate Phase 2 Phase 3 Make Rats Quinine Sodium Deficient Make Rats Quinine Sodium Deficient US Inflation Technique (Cont’d) Phase 1 Quinine + Salt Together Quinine + Salt Separate Quinine or Quinine Drink CR Drink CR Salt Phase 2 Sodium Deficient Phase 3 Quinine Sodium Deficient Quinine Actual Results Salt Salt CR cr How Do Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli Become Associated? Group 1) Group 1 2) Group 2 The Kamin Blocking Effect Phase 1 Phase 2 Light + Tone + Light + Tone and Light + Test Light/ToneLight/Tone- The Kamin Blocking Effect Rescorla & Wagner (1972) Model • The effectiveness of an unconditioned stimulus is determined by it “surprisingness” • An event is surprising when it is unexpected • ΔV = k(Lamda – V) – Lamda = asymptote of learning supported by a US – V = associative value of stimuli that precede the US – K = salience of the CS and US The Comparator Hypothesis • During Conditioning 3 associations are formed – Target CS and the US – Target CS and other stimuli (e.g., contextual) – Other stimuli and the US • Conditioned responding is determined by the relative strength of the 3 associations – Performance Model The Comparator Hypothesis Target CS 1 2 Comparison Comparator Stimuli 3 Indirect US Representation CR US Representation The Comparator Hypothesis and the Blocking Effect Target CS “Tone” 2 Comparison Comparator Stimuli “Light” 3 Indirect US Representation “Shock” CR “Fear” 1 US Representation “Shock” ...
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