Midterm SG FINAL

Midterm SG FINAL - 1 ]History & Research Methods Major...

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1 Major Philosophical quandaries: 1. Mind-Body dualism/monism: Monism - physical and mental are one Idealism – all is thought Materialism – all is physical, we’re all robots only fooling ourselves to think we’re a living being Dualism – physical and mental are different aspects of reality 1. Interactionism I have a soul, spirit, mind & this mind interfaces with the material body I tell body how to act & body tells me what happens in world. I interact with my body throughout lifetime 2. Psychophysical Parallelism moment of conception God plots life course & we follow life course, mind doesn’t tell body what to do, they both following parallel, everything is predestined 2. Free will vs. determinism: free will is doctrine that behavior is cuased by a person’s independent decisions, not by external determinants; determinism is assumption that all bahvior has a cause, or determinant, in the observable world 3. Nature vs. nurture: question of the relative roles played by heredity (nature) & environment (nurture) in determining differences in behavior 4. Deductive vs. inductive methods: process of deriving a conclusion from premises already accepted. Induction process of inferring a general principle from observations Qualities of the scientific method: 5. Falsifiability of hypotheses: making sufficiently precise predictions that we can at least imagine evidence that would contradict the theory (if anyone had obtained such evidence) 6. Replicability of findings: result that can be repeated (approx) by any competent investigator who follows the same procedures used in the original study 7. Parsimonious explanation: (stinginess) scientists’ preference for the theory that explains the results using the simplest assumptions 8. Devaluation of anecdotal evidence: 9. Naturalistic observations: careful examination of what many ppl or nonhuman animals do under natural conditions 10. Case histories: thorough description of a single individual, including info on both past experiences 11. Correlational studies: procedure in which investigators measure the correlation between 2 variables w/out controlling either of them 12. Correlation vs . causation : Correlation measure of the relationship between 2 variables which are both outside the investigators’ control. Causation 13. Experiment: studies in which the investigator manipulates @ least one variable while measuring @ least one other variable 14. Experimental and control conditions: experimental group is the group that receives the treatment that an experiment is designed to test. Control group is the group treated in the same way as the experimental for the procedure that the experiment is designed to test 15. Dependent, independent variables: DV: item that an experimenter measures to determine how changes in the IV affect it; IV: the item that an experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the DV 16. Purpose of descriptive vs. inferential statistics
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2010 for the course PSYCH PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Fridulund during the Winter '09 term at UCSB.

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Midterm SG FINAL - 1 ]History & Research Methods Major...

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