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Unformatted text preview: Los Angeles and the American Dream 22:05 A. Founding Myths 1. In a wonderful and hospital climate, a town (el pueblo) is forged 2. Racial fluidity was an early feature – over half of the original 44 settlers were African or Mulatto, except for two who were Spanish the rest were Mestizo (Indian and Spanish). 3. Subsequent settlers attracted by the climate, the welcome, and the economic and social opportunities, markets rule and people come to make their fortune • B. Common Perceptions 1. Lots of mobility within classes, government should not intervene 2. Since mid-1970’s, increase in productivity has not correlated with an increase in wages • C. Impact of Gabrielinos 1. Created underlying human geography of region 2. Established basic transportation network 3. Constituted basic labor force of region harnessed by Spaniards to build economy and infrastructure • D. El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de Los Angeles 1. Established in 1781 2. Initial population – 44 – of mixed ethnicity 3. Planned according to Law of Indies, with city lot surrounding plaza, commonly held farm plots at edge of town near river 4. Population 1000 by 1830 5. Largest pueblo in California • E. The Californios 1. Mexican settlers who came to dominate southern California after 1822 War of Independence from Spain 2. Mostly cattle ranchers but some merchants 3. Many large ranchos created by land grants to soldiers 4. Ranches run by Gabrielo vaqueros 5. Many lose land after US takeover • F. Population Growth During LA’s First American Century 1. Role of Railroads 2. The Great Migration 3. LA’s Growth Compared to Other US Cities 4. Population Diversity & Early Communities • G. What did we do today? 1. Founding myths – Story you tell yourself. About a place, the people, and who they are. 2. Founding myth of LA – multicultural paradise, noir – identity erased, parts remain 3. Myth – taken from Mexico, examination of who fought reveals taken from California • • • Los Angeles and the American Dream
• • • Cadillac Desert A. Natural resources (1) Lacked resources needed for major city to survive (2) Lacked water (3) Tons of earthquakes B. History (1) First inhabited by Spaniards (2) William Mulholland was superintendent of LA water system (3) LA sucked dry Los Angeles River, only source of water (4) Whites came, pushed Indians away (5) Fenced up areas, declared ownership of water (6) By 1904, settlers had taken Indians’ land (7) Planned to move Owens River into LA (8) The river was owned by farmers (9) City acquiring an entire river unheard of in this day and age (10) Los Angeles was about getting what you want, at all costs (11) Wanted to build aqueduct to create agricultural paradise (12) Project was a success, still carries Owens River to LA (13) When water came, Mulholland said, “There it is, take it.” C. Building Age of LA 1. Tons of people migrated to LA 2. Became larger than NY 3. LA County became largest farm county in America D. Seize of the Aqueduct 1. Bunch of a-holes seized the aqueduct 2. Tried to stop flow of water to Los Angeles 3. Aqueduct blown up E. Movement of Valley 1. Natives 2. Settlers 3. City of Los Angeles F. Dam’s Failure 1. Dam failed by itself, killed people 2. Lost his reputation 3. Held responsible for failure 4. Mulholland resigned in disgrace 5. Failure clouded his achievements G. Colorado River 1. Los Angeles took Colorado River water 2. Some tried to stop this, but failed H. Alaskan Water 1. Wanted to get 200 year water source from Alaska 22:05 • • • • • • • Los Angeles and the American Dream
A. Hegemony (1) Shared ideology (2) Example: Belief that hard work gets you anywhere, statistics say otherwise B. Relationship of Power and Economic Growth (1) Growth allows tensions over power to ease (2) Growth can become its own ideology (3) Growth regimes can emerge as well (4) Power has a spatial dimension C. LA Times Bombing (1) Know as Otus Town (2) Wicked City D. What did we do today? (1) Power in urban era a. Economic b. Political Ideological 22:05 Los Angeles and the American Dream
A. The City Project (1) Mission a. Equal justice b. Democracy c. Livability for all (2) Scarce safe places to play (3) Restoration of Los Angeles River (4) Project: Establish standards for park poor and income poor a. Park Poor = Less than 3 acres parks per 1000 residents b. Income Poor = Less than $48,000 median household income (5) Strategies a. Collective Vision – Diverse values bring people together b. Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis c. Strategic media campaigns d. Policy and legal advocacy e. Access to Justin in court (6) Discriminatory Impacts – Race, Color, and Natural Origin a. Numerical disparities b. Business necessity Less discriminatory alternatives Los Angeles and the American Dream
1. Rise of Hollywood in Los Angeles (A) Alternative economic power rose (B) Still prone to segregation Space and Power Los Angeles and the American Dream
• • • • Space gets racialized, race gets spacialized Space becomes a segregated area for the congregation of a race or likeminded group of people. The image and identity of a race occurs as a result of the space the race is associated with. • • Koreatown is 75-80% Latino • A. Cheap Housing (1) GI bill helped to craft out a suburban vision (2) Suburbs were being created in LA (3) Fight about public housing in LA B. Feltcher Bowron (1) Mayor 1938-53 (2) Wanted to secure public housing (3) Trying to simultaneously improve housing and redevelop downtown C. The Changing Meaning of Public Housing D. East LA Freeways (1) Freeway construction separated and split East Los Angeles E. Models of Immigration (1) First Generation a. Born in another country b. Tend to have emotional ties to own country c. Too busy for politics or citizenship (2) Second Generation a. Born in US b. Weaker ties to parents’ country c. Better in English d. Become involved politically (3) Third Generation a. Born to second generation b. Sometimes does not speak language of grandparents c. Interested in becoming Americans d. Citizenship and soul have merged F. Chicano Experience (1) Rejected assimilation model (2) Felt that their were blockages of them making it to third generation (3) American by structure and identity a. Structure 1. Mass deportation of Mexicans during Great Depression b. Identity 1. Many Mexicans participated in WWII 2. Not one act of treason or desertion by Mexican Los Angeles and the American Dream
3. Americanized Mexican population (4) Zoot Suit Riots a. Sailors from Long Beach beat up Mexicans in zoot suits (5) Major manifestation of Mexican-American political identity is insistence n being American G. What Did We Do Today? (1) Racial and spatial identity (2) Post-WWII dynamics – suburbs and public housing struggle Profound effect on Latinos living in the city Los Angeles and the American Dream
Tom Bradley • Mayor of LA • Regional mayor • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Bradley_(politician) • Symbolic of LA County • Have to be a regional mayor for downtown development • Crowning moment 1984 Olympics • What Did We Do Today? • Issues of identity • Chicano generation rejected traditional immigrant passage • Created different identity, multiple identities Bradley • Los Angeles and the American Dream – George Sanchez
A. Boyle Heights (1) Neighborhood of 80-90,000 people (2) 20s and 30s – principle Jewish community (3) Multiracial history, now thought of as Latino B. Jewish Community Center (1) 70-80% grew up there (2) Federal government had decided that multiracial communities were a threat (3) Sign that a community was in decline C. Young people in Boyle Heights (1) Fascinated that community was not always Latino (2) Saw classmates taken away Los Angeles and the American Dream
A. Building a Downtown (1) Bradley pushbacks a. Minorities pushed back because they did not feel they were part of the growth b. Poverty increased in Bradley era c. Frustration helped trigger 1992 civil unrest B. End of an Era Los Angeles and the American Dream
A. L.A. Civil Unrest (1) Third day a. “Can’t we all just get along?” (2) Aftermath a. City’s image had burned b. Bradley coalition wrecked beyond repair c. Usually viewed as a black-white affair d. 51% Latino arrested, 38% African American, 11% Anglo, 3% other e. Police do not cooperate with immigration authorities in terms of arrest (3) Demographic Change a. Damaged areas were majority Latino b. Employment growth less than other areas of California (4) What Did We Learn Today? a. L.A. Riots –Political and racial b. Looting and arson c. Broke myth of city Ended Bradley Coalition Southland
A. Origins (1) Story from high school teacher about bragging about killing teens (2) Holiday Bowl (3) Crenshaw (4) 22:05 Los Angeles and the American Dream
A. Midterm 1. Check up 2. Pairs of terms 3. Draw connections between terms 4. Good answer will talk about themes, explicit reference to reading • B. Los Angeles: From the Ashes? 1. Chandler family owned LA Times Rise of working poverty 22:05 22:05 • ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2010 for the course GEOG 100gm taught by Professor Dear during the Spring '07 term at USC.
- Spring '07