Project 7: Acids and Bases
Chemistry 102 Laboratory, Section 39
Instructor: Craig Stanton
April 7, 2009
This paper describes the investigation of four unknown acids and bases.
were carried out in order to identify these solutions.
In the end, Unknown 2 was potassium
hydroxide, Unknown 4 was sodium acetate, Unknown 5 was hydrochloric acid, and Unknown 7
was acetic acid.
Litmus paper pH tests revealed that Unknown 2 had a pH of 12, Unknown 4
had a pH of 9, Unknown 5 had a pH of 1, and Unknown 7 had a pH of 4.
Flame tests revealed a
purple flame in Unknown 2, making its cation potassium, and an orange flame in Unknown 4,
making its cation sodium.
Anion tests revealed the acetate anion in Unknowns 4 and 7.
these data, hypotheses were formed about each unknown, and were confirmed by the instructor.
Further tests were done on the solutions to determine their original concentrations.
The test used
was an indicator test.
Using the equation M1V1 = M2 V2, the concentrations of the solutions
The molarity of Unknown 2 was .5395, Unknown 4 was .481, Unknown 5 was
.662, and Unknown 7 was .587. A cereal dilution was performed on each solution to determine
how concentration affects pH.
The results indicated that as concentration goes down, the
solution becomes more neutral.
Household items were then tested to gain knowledge about how
they react when titrated.
Using all of the discovered information, proper ways of handling each
solution were determined.
My signature indicates that this document represents my own work. Outside of shared data, the
information, thoughts and ideas are my own except as indicated in the references. I have
submitted an electronic copy through Blackboard to be scanned by TurnItIn.com. In addition, I
have not given aid to another student on this assignment.