Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases - Project 7: Acids and Bases Chemistry 102...

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Project 7: Acids and Bases Chemistry 102 Laboratory, Section 39 Instructor: Craig Stanton April 7, 2009 ABSTRACT This paper describes the investigation of four unknown acids and bases. Multiple tests were carried out in order to identify these solutions. In the end, Unknown 2 was potassium hydroxide, Unknown 4 was sodium acetate, Unknown 5 was hydrochloric acid, and Unknown 7 was acetic acid. Litmus paper pH tests revealed that Unknown 2 had a pH of 12, Unknown 4 had a pH of 9, Unknown 5 had a pH of 1, and Unknown 7 had a pH of 4. Flame tests revealed a purple flame in Unknown 2, making its cation potassium, and an orange flame in Unknown 4, making its cation sodium. Anion tests revealed the acetate anion in Unknowns 4 and 7. Using these data, hypotheses were formed about each unknown, and were confirmed by the instructor. Further tests were done on the solutions to determine their original concentrations. The test used was an indicator test. Using the equation M1V1 = M2 V2, the concentrations of the solutions were determined. The molarity of Unknown 2 was .5395, Unknown 4 was .481, Unknown 5 was .662, and Unknown 7 was .587. A cereal dilution was performed on each solution to determine how concentration affects pH. The results indicated that as concentration goes down, the solution becomes more neutral. Household items were then tested to gain knowledge about how they react when titrated. Using all of the discovered information, proper ways of handling each solution were determined. My signature indicates that this document represents my own work. Outside of shared data, the information, thoughts and ideas are my own except as indicated in the references. I have submitted an electronic copy through Blackboard to be scanned by TurnItIn.com. In addition, I have not given aid to another student on this assignment.
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INTRODUCTION The main goal of this project was to identify the components and properties of four unlabeled solutions left in the stockroom of a chemical company, determine how their behaviors were affected by concentration, and verify our findings through tests with various household items.’ As much information possible on these unknown solutions had to be compiled in order to determine how to handle them properly. The identities of the unknown solutions were determined through the use of many tests including a flame tests, pH litmus paper tests, and anion tests. Through these three tests, the four unknown solutions were correctly identified. This allowed for research on the compounds to determine how they should be properly handled and disposed of. 1 Going further in determining their properties, indicators were used to identify the concentrations of the solutions. Indicators are used in titrations in order to determine the end point of a titration. By knowing how much of an indicator was used, compared to the amount of the solution being titrated, the concentration of the solution can be determined. These concentrations were calculated using the indicator method. Knowing the concentrations of the
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This note was uploaded on 03/10/2010 for the course CHEM 102 L taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '08 term at Clemson.

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Acids and Bases - Project 7: Acids and Bases Chemistry 102...

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