CSCI6268L27 - Foundations of Network and Computer Security...

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Foundations of Network and Foundations of Network and Computer Security Computer Security J J ohn Black Lecture #27 Nov 6 th 2009 CSCI 6268/TLEN 5550, Fall 2009
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Packet Marking Idea: mark packets as they pass through routers The mark should give information as to what route the packet took One idea is to mark every packet that traverses a given router Just append their IP address to a list in the IP header Drawback is that this is a HUGE burden to put on routers They would have to mark EVERY packet Packets would get enormous if they travel a long route Packets might be caused to fragment
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Probabilistic Packet Marking First, some assumptions: Attackers can generate any packet Attackers can conspire Packets can be lost or reordered Route from attacker to victim is mostly stable Routers are not widely compromised
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PPM: Continued Each router writes its address in a 32-bit field only with probability p Routers don’t care if they are overwriting another router’s address Probability of seeing the mark of a router d hops away is p(1-p) d-1 This is monotonic so victim can sort by number of packets received and get the path Smallest number is received by furthest router, etc
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PPM: Difficulties We have to change the IP header any time a router marks a packet This means storing the mark (has drawbacks) Updating the header checksum But this is already done for TTL decrements But we may need a LOT of packets to reconstruct a path Suppose p=0.51 and d=15, then we need more than 42,000 to get a single sample from the furthest router To get the order right with 95% probability requires around 300,000 packets Multiple attackers complicates matters With multiple attackers at the same distance, this all breaks down
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Next Try: Edge Sampling Reserve two address-sized fields in the IP header: “start” and “end” Reserve a small “distance” field as well When a router decides to mark a packet, it writes its address in the “start” field and zeroes the distance field When a router sees a zero in the distance field, it writes its address in the “end” field If a router decides not to mark a packet, it increments the distance field only Must use saturating addition This is critical to minimize spoofing by the attacker; without it, attackers could inject routers close to the victim Now attacker can only spoof marks with distance counts equal or
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