The Expository Paragraph

The Expository Paragraph - CHAPTER 4 THE EXPOSETQRY...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 4 THE EXPOSETQRY PARAGRAPH e organization and content of a paragraph are determined by the topic and the controlling idea of that paragraph. A topic sentence must be supported with details organized chronologically in a narrative paragraph and spatially in a descriptive paragraph. Not all topics are best developed into narrative or descriptive para- graphs, however. Let us say, for instance, that you were asked to develop the topic sentence, “Owning a car can be expensive." The controlling idea is, of course, expensive. What kind of support would you use for this topic sentence? Obviously the topic sentence does not suggest that you tell a story or describe a scene or a person; rather, it suggests that you support the controlling idea with infor- mation, explanation, facts, or illustrations. A paragraph that ex— plains or analyzes a topic is an expository paragraph. (Expository comes from the term expose, meaning “reveal.") Although explain- ing a topic can be done in several ways, the most common approach to developing an expository paragraph requires using specific de- tails and examples. In subsequent chapters, other methods of devel- oping expository paragraphs and essays will be discussed. No matter what type of paragraph you are writing, you will need Specific detail and examples to support the controlling idea in the topic sentence. The controlling idea is the word or phrase in the topic sentence that states an idea or an attitude about the topic; this idea or attitude is frequently referred to as a generalization. A generalization is a statement that applies in most cases to a group of things, ideas, or people. A generalization can be a value judgment or an opinion (“Mn Mantia is a nice person") or a factual statement (“The English language has borrowed many terms from French"). ._ EXERCISE 4.1 Study the following sets of sentences carefully. In the space pro— vided, write a topic sentence that contains a pertinent generaliza- tion. I. Topic Sentence: Support: a. Computers are used in hospitals to keep rec— ords of all patients. in. Department stores like Sears and J. C. Penney 85 86 use computers to keep records of their cus- tomers' payments. c. Home computers are used to balance check- . books, keep track of investments, regulate the heat and lights, and even to play games. d. Students find pocket calculators invaluable in their math classes. e. Computerized robots are now being used in some industries on assembly lines. 2. Topic Sentence: Support: a. Although some people disagree, I think the Sahara Desert, with its eerie dunes and wide vistas, is a place of great beauty. b. Nothing is more beautiful than the sun rising over the tall peaks of the Drakensberg Moun- tains in southern Africa. c. The plains of Kenya and Tanzania are mar- velous places to watch huge herds of wilde— beest, zebra, and antelope. d. The beaches of the Cap Verde Peninsula in Senegal, West Africa, are picture-postcard perfect with their stretches of white sand, cliffs, and turquoise blue water. 3. Topic Sentence: Support: a. People used to think that Neanderthal man was quite stupid because of the shape of his head. However, scientific investigation shows that head shape does not have anything to do with intelligence. b. Neanderthal man made beautiful tools. c. He also made flint balls, perforators, discs, scrapers, and stone knives. d. Neanderthal man developed the use of min- eral pigments such as red ocher. c. He also introduced ceremonial burial of the dead, suggesting that he had a highly devel— oped religious system. —Adapted from ASHLEY Mom‘scu. Man: His First Two Million Years (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), p. 67. 4. Topic Sentence: Support: a. Thirty-three percent of all high—school ath— letes are female, a sixfold increase since the early 1970s. In colleges, the figure is 30 per- cent, an increase in ten years of 250 percent. b. Since 1970, the number of women tennis play— ers in the country has jumped from about 3 million to II million, the number of golfers from less than a half million to more than 5 million. 87 0. According to one survey, of the nation’s 17.1 million joggers, over one-third are women; in 1970, there were too few to count. d. In 1980, financial rewards for female athletes topped more than $16 million, up from less than $1 million ten years ago. -—Adapted from “Female Athletes: They've Come a Long Way, Baby." Reader's Digs“, October 1980, p. 126. WWW—J Support of the Generalization Specific Details The topic sentence “Owning a care can be expensive" indicates that the paragraph should provide some information or expiana— tion. This topic sentence might be developed as follows: Owning a car can be expensive. A car costs a lot of money these days. In addition to the price, you have to pay finance charges. After that, you have to buy gasoline to keep the thing running. Also, we should not forget the cost of maintenance. All of these add up to a big chunk of your salary! Does this paragraph effectively demonstrate that owning a car can be expensive? The paragraph does mention a few expenses that the owner must incur, but the writer has not provided the reader with much hard evidence to support the controlling idea—expen— sive. Specific details would help support this statement more strongly. Just as specific descriptive details help to support the con- trolling idea in a description and make the description more vivid and interesting, specific details help “prove” or support the general- ization in an expository paragraph. This paragraph can be im- proved by using specific detail: Owning a car can be expensive. First, you have the purchase of the car itself. If you get the cheapest new car in the showroom, you will end up paying about $6,000. Before you can drive the car home, you have to finance the car. Unless you have $6,000 in cash, you will have to get a loan with high interest rates and pay a monthly note of around $200. Buying the car, however, is just the beginning of your expenses. Next, you have to buy gasoline at over a dollar a gallon. If you drive an average of 100 miles a week and get 35 miles per gallon, you will end up spending $136 to $10 a week on gas. That is about $40 a month. Add to that the expenses you have for maintenance, such as tune-ups and lubrications, and you have another $35 per month. All of these add up to about $300 a month—a big chunk of anyone's paycheck! Instead of just referring to the expenses of owning a car, in this revised version the writer has used specific details—min this case factual details—t0 illustrate or prove the generalization. 88 In expository writing, then, the writer is like a lawyer who is trying to prove a point; a lawyer cannot make generalizations With- out giving proof to support his or her statements. Good proof is factual detail. a EXERCISE 4-2 To illustrate the difference in the support given in the two para- graphs about owning a car, make an outline of each paragraph. On the left side of your paper write the outline for the first version of the paragraph; on the right side write the outline for the revised version. Then compare the support. INEFFECTIVE SUPPORT EFFECTIVE SUPPORT A car costs a lot of money these If you get the cheapest new car days. EXERCISE 4-3 in the showroom, you will end up paying about $6,000. Study the following bits of information about the mythical town of Decasia, Illinois. January 3: January 23: February 1: February I5: March 3: March 16: April 5: May 3: June 15: July 3: August I: August I5: September 2: October 12: November 3: December I: Rose’s Giant Boutique moves to the Town Mall shop— ping center. Heartland Department Store moves to the Town Mall. Thirty-six potholes are counted on Main Street. Fire destroys Boolie’s Restaurant. During the night someone paints “The Killers” on four buildings. An “adult” (pornographic) bookstore moves into the building formerly occupied by Rose’s Giant Bou- tique. The elegant Chandler Theater closes dOWn. The famous Chez Pierre restaurant closes down for lack of business. Forty potholes counted on Main Street. Bus service is discontinued. The remains of Boolie's Restaurant are condemned. Shank’s Men’s Clothing Store moves to the Town Mall in the suburbs. An “adult” movie theater opens at the 01d Chandler Theater. Three more buildings have “The Killers" painted on them. All of the windows of the old Heartland Department Store are shattered by stones. A pawnshop opens where Chez Pierre used to be. m Using information from this list, rewrite the weak support given below and provide strong support for the topic sentence given. You do not have to use all the information provided. Write out the topic sentence and the strong support on a separate sheet of paper. Topic Sentence: The downtown area of Decasia is rapidly decay- ing. Support: a. Many of the stores are moving out. b. Some of the buildings are unsightly. c. The street is in bad shape. d. Several sleezy places have opened up. Not only should support be specific, it should be relevant as well. All of the supporting sentences in a paragraph should relate to the controlling idea in order for the paragraph to be unified. l'"—_——_H"_‘————_—""'——"_—‘i EXERCISE 4-4 Study the following groups of topic sentences and details. Circle the letter of the detail that does not actually support the generaliza- tion (controlling idea) in each topic sentence. I. Smoking cigarettes is unhealthy. a. Studies have indicated that cigarette smoking increases the risk of cancer. b. Smokers have a higher rate of respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and bronchitis. 0. Studies have also shown that cigarette smokers have a higher rate of heart attacks. d- Moreover, cigarette smoke stains the teeth. 2. The French have made some important contributions to the field of medicine. a. In 1736 Claudius Amyand performed the first successful ap— pendectomy. ‘ b. Marie F. X. Bich'at was responsible for the founding of histol» ogy, the study of tissues, in 1800. 0. Later, in 1857, Louis Pasteur began his work on the process which bears his name, pasteurization. d. Two years later, in 1859, Darwin published his Origin of Spe— czes. e. In 1896 Antoine H. Becquerel made the discovery of radioactiv— ity in uranium. f. And finally, in 1894, the Frenchman Alexandre Yersin and the Japanese S. Kitasato discovered the bacillus causing bu- bonic plague. 3. Some progress has been made in the last fifty years in the battle against cancer. a. In 1937, less than $1,000,000 was used for research support; in 1978, that figure was about $900,000,000. b. The death rate caused by uterine cancer, the principal cause 89 90 of cancer death in women about fifty years ago, has been re— duced more than 70 percent. 0. Cancer is a very painful way to die. d. In 1937, doctors could save fewer than one cancer victim in five; in 1978, one in three cancer victims still survived after five years of treatment. L________________________..—.—————l Examples Since factual details are not always available and since not all generalizations can be “proven,” other kinds of support are neces— sary for the expository paragraph. The most common kind of sup- port is examples. What exactly is an example? By definition, an example is an item that represents a group of things, people, or ideas. In other words, an example is a specific representative of a general category. An example of a horror movie is The House of Wax,- an example of a tennis player is Bjorn Borg. In short, examples make the controlling idea—the generalization—clearer and more convincing, and therefore are an effective means of support. |————_'—‘-——_“——_——__——___l EXERCISE 4-5 Complete the following sentences. The first one is done. Draw on personal experiences and observations. I. An example of a famous rock-and-roll singer is Elfis PrBSleY . 2. An example of a powerful leader is 3. An example of a difficult course is 4. Albert Einstein is an example of a 5. Driving while under the influence of alcohol is an example of W |_____'__________._________.———————-] It is not usually sufficient just to name an example; often it is necessary to explain the example to show how it relates to and supports the generalization. For instance, notice the simple general- ization in this topic sentence: Tarnadoes can be devastating. The topic is tornadoes and the controlling idea (generalization) is that they can be devastating. It would be insufficient to support that generalization by simply stating, “Take for example, the tornado that hit Wichita Falls, Texas, in 1979.” That does not really show that the tornado was devastating; in reality, the tornado might have caused very little damage. It is necessary to add an explanation of that example: “This tornado destroyed an entire block of homes and damaged many other houses and plaCes of business. In addition, the tornado caused the death of several people.” Now the reader is convinced that the example is relevant. The paragraph might conclude by discussing one or two more examples: Tornadoes can be devastating. Take, for example, the tornado which hit Wichita Falls, Texas, in 1979. This tornado destroyed an entire block of homes and damaged many other houses and places of business. In addi« tion, the tornado caused the death of over twenty people. More recently, a series of tornadoes hit the Midwest and leveled blocks of houses and businesses, as well as caused the death of several people. Even though not all tornadoes cause such massive devastation, if they touch down in populated areas, you can expect considerable damage. The explanation of an example does not have to be lengthy; some— times all you need to do is add a few words. Consider another exam— ple: Generalization: My brother is lazy. Support: He quit his summer job. Does this example of his behavior really show that the brother is lazy? After all, the brother may have quit the job because he was ill. The writer could add a clause to explain the example: He quit his summer job because he did not want to get up early each morning. Using this same generalization, the writer might discuss four or five additional examples to show that the brother is lazy, but among those examples should be one that refers to a particular incident. In other words, even when using examples from experience, make those examples specific. The example discussed above (“He quit his summer job because he did not want to get up early each morn- ing") is a specific example. Here is how the support might look for this generalization: My brother is lazy. a; Every time he mows the lawn, he does not bother to mow by the fence because it is a difficult spot to mow. b. Whenever it is his turn to take out the trash, he pretends he is sick so my other brother has to do it. c. He refuses to walk to school, claiming it makes him too tired to work well, even though he has plenty of energy to play ball after school. (1. He even quit his summer job this year because he did not want to get up early each morning. 91 92 I—W"mw_’—i EXERCISE 4-6 Underline the part of each sentence above that clarifies its support of the generalization. EXERCISE 4-7 For each of the following topic sentences, circle the controlling idea (generalization) and then write out two examples that support that idea. Be sure that the examples are adequately explained. For the second example, use a specific incident. The first one is done. I. Mr. Morales displays kindness wherever he gees. a. When he is on the bus, he talks to people who look sad. He tells them funny stories that invariably make them smile. b. Last week when he heard that his neighbor was sick, he made some soup and delivered it to her, along with a bouquet of flowers. 2. There are some mean people in my neighborhood. a. b. 3. Some things definitely need to be changed at this school. a. b. 4. Much of the taxpayers' money is wasted. a. b. 5. Industrialization that occurs too quickly can cause problems. a. b. EXERCISE 4-3 Select one of the following writing assignments. a- Choose one of the generalizations in Exercise 4—7. Develop a paragraph with examples drawn from personal experience. b- The devastation from such natural disasters as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, hail storms, or droughts is awesome. Write a para- graph giving examples of the devastation caused by a natural disaster. m Illustrations and Anecdotes It is not always necessary to give several examples to support the controlling idea; sometimes one example that is explained in greater detail will suffice to support the controlling idea. This kind of extended example is useful, not so much for “proving” the state— ment in the generalization but for illustrating it; therefore, this kind of example is called an illustration. Study the following para- graph: Wherever there are great forests, modern methods of insect control threaten the fishes inhabiting the streams in the shelter Of the trees. One of the best~known examples of fish destruction in the United States took place in 1955, as a result of spraying in and near Yellowstone National Park. By the fall of that year, so many dead fish had been found in the Yellowstone River that sportsmen and Montana fish—and-game administra— tors becarne alarmed. About 90 miles of the river were affected. In one goo—yard length of shoreline, 600 dead fish were counted, including brown trout, Whitefish, and suckers. Stream insects, the natural food of trout, had disappeared. —RACHEL CARSON, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962). What is the controlling idea in the paragraph? Another type of illustration is an anecdote. An anecdote is a brief story which dramatizes the point made in the generalization. Study the following paragraph and note the organization: There is a story, possibly apocryphal, about a psychologist who shut a chimpanzee in a soundproof room filled with dozens of mechanical toys. Eager to see which playthings the ape would choose when he was all alone in this treasure house, the scientist bent down on his knees and put his eye to the keyhole. What he saw was one bright eye peering through from the other side of the aperture. If this anecdote isn’t true, it certainly ought to be, for it illustrates the impossibility of anticipating exactly what an animal will do in a test situation. —FR.ANK A. BEACH, “Can Animals Reason?" Natural History, March, 1943. What is the topic sentence? How are the sentences arranged? COMPOSITION SKILLS Coherence Organization of Details and Examples When a paragraph contains several details and examples, it is necessary to consider the order of their presentation. Unlike narra— tives, whoso sentences logically are ordered chronologically, and descriptions, whose sentences are logically organized on a spatial 33 94 principle, the sentences in the expository paragraph follow no pre— scribed or set pattern. The ordering depends upon the subject and often upon the author’s logic. There are, however, some common patterns that might be considered guidelines. ORDER OF IMPORTANCE: SAVING THE BEST FOR LAST. Often, when you are developing a topic sentence with details and examples, one of the examples is more impressive than the others. Since read- ers generally remember what they read last, and since it is a good idea to leave a good impression on the reader, it is wise to place the most impressive example at the end of the paragraph. Study the following paragraph and note that the last example is the “most startling” one: A search through etymologies will reveal other examples of words which have narrowed in meaning since their early days. Barbarian was originally a vague designation for a foreigner of any kind; garage, when it was borrowed from France, meant "a place for storage.” In the United States lumber has specialized to mean “timber or sawed logs especially prepared for use," but in Britain the word still retains its more general meaning of “unused articies,” which are stored, incidentally, in a lumber mom. Disease originally meant what its separate parts imply, dis ease, and referred to any kind of discomfort. The expression “to give up the ghost” and the biblical reference to the Holy Ghost may be the only remnants of an earlier, more general meaning for ghost, which once meant "spirit" or “breath.” Now ghost has specialized to mean “a specter or apparition" of some kind. Perhaps the mest startling specialization has taken place with the word girl; even as late as Chaucer's time it was used to mean “a young person of either sex." —chuaan R. Lonwrc and Eocene F. BARRETT, The Dictionary and the Language (New York: Hayden Book Co., 1967), p. 159. ORDER OF FAMILIARITY: FROM THE MORE FAMILIAR TO THE LESS FAMILIAR. When the details in the expository paragraph are mostly factual, it is common to begin with the most obvious or familiar detail and move toivard the less obvious or less familiar detail. This is the pattern of the paragraph discussed in Chapter I. The writer begins with details that most people would consider when thinking about expense: the price. Then the writer discusses the less obvious or familiar expense of smoking cigarettes: the cleaning expenses. Reread this paragraph and note how the writer connects the more obvious expense to the less obvious expense: Smoking cigarettes can be an expensive habit. Considering that the aver- age price per pack of cigarettes is 65¢, people who smoke two packs of cigarettes a day spend $51.30 per day on their habit. At the end of one year these smokers have spent at least $474.50. But the cost of cigarettes is not the only expense cigarette smokers incur. Since cigarette smoke 95 has an offensive odor that permeates clothing, stuffed furniture and carpet, smokers often find that they must have these items cleaned more frequently than nonsmokers do. Although it is dilficult to estimate the cost of this additional expense, one can see that this hidden expense does contribute to making cigarette smoking an expensive habit. ORDER or TIME: FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT. When the details and examples in a paragraph are taken from history or are events which have taken place, it is often a good idea to order the examples according to chronology. I have never done very well in school. When I was in the first grade, for example, I received a low mark in reading skills because I read so slowly. Later, when I was in the sixth grade, I failed mathematics because I never turned my homework in on time. In junior high school I never got above a “C” average, and in high school I did no better. W EXERCISE 4-9 Study the following topic sentences and their support. Rearrange the support so that each detail is in its logical position. Remember, there is no set order, but you must be able to justify your choice. 1. American women have been fighting for equal rights for over 100 years. a. In 1920 the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution was adopted. This amendment gave women the right to vote. b. In 1976 the U.S. military academies admitted women for the first time. c. Women began to fight for better working conditions in New York in 1868. d. In 1978 Congress passed the Pregnancy Disability Bill, which makes pregnancy an insurable disability. e. Women were still fighting to get the Equal Rights Amendment passed in 1980. f. Congress passed an act forbidding discrimination on the basis of sex by employers of fifteen or more employees in 1964. 2. If you are ever bored with reading the same old magazines, just visit your local magazine stand, where you can find magazines that cover a wide variety of interests. a. If you would like to fantasize, you might try Adventure Travel, which takes you on “armchair adventures" around the world. b. If you would like to escape into the world of mystery, pick up Hitchcock’s Mystery Magazine or Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine. c. Sports fans can learn all about sports in The Sporting News, 96 Sports A field, and Sports Illustrated; or if you like a sport in particular, pick up World Tennis, Ski, or Motor Boating and Sailing. d. If you are really serious and want to probe the unknown, try Fate, Omni, or the Catholic Digest. 3. But probably the most useful magazines are those that can help you get rich so you will not have to get bored. Try Fortune, Contest News-Letter (which will not help you learn how to earn money, but perhaps how to win some), or Money Maga— 21277.6. 3. Keeping cool in the summer can be expensive. a. The most obvious expense is the utility bill. The cost of running an air conditioner has doubled in the last year. b. The refrigerator has to work overtime to keep the temperature at a cool level; therefore, the electric bill is increased. c. People tend to drink more liquids, especially carbonated bever— ages, when it is hot. These drinks are much more expensive than tea or coffee, which people usually drink in cooler weather. EXERCISE 4~10 Every culture has proverbs. Some popular ones in the United States are “The early bird catches the worm” and “A stitch in time saves nine." Think of a popular proverb in your country and translate it into good English. Using the proverb as your topic sentence, write a paragraph with an anecdote from your life which shows the truth of this statement. a Transitional Words and Phrases Not only should sentences and ideas in a paragraph be logically arranged, but they should flow smoothly as well. Such expressions as next, then, after that, and the like, signal time sequence; such expressions as above, farther on, next to, and so forth, signal loca~ tion. These types of words and phrases help to achieve coherence by establishing the relationship between sentences in a paragraph. Because they provide transitions—links or connectorsmbetween ideas and sentences by signalling what is going to follow, they are called transitional words and phrases. Here the focus will be on some transitions to be used to achieve coherence in the expository paragraph developed by example. 0 An example 015 the most significant example. These expres~ sions are used to identify the example in the sentence; this approach is probably more commonly used for illustrations. An example of a brilliant scientist is Albert Einstein. It is also a good way to clarify the significance of the example, especially when your paragraph gees from least important to most important: The most startling example of a word that has specialiZed in mean— ing is girl. One of the best-known examples of fish destruction in the United States took place in 1955. . . . 0 Another example, an additional example. These expressions are used to introduce the second or third example for the same generalization when the examples are equally significant. Another example of a brilliant scientist is Georg Ohm. If: I, t. L-.. E , t; ° To illustrate. This infinitive phrase is used to introduce an illustration and is generally placed at the beginning of the sentence: To illustrate, let us look at a topic sentence to identify the topic and controlling idea. - For example, for instance. These expressions are the most fre— quently used transitional words for introducing examples and illus— trations. They occur most often at the beginning of a sentence, but they can be placed in the middle of the sentence (after the introduc- tory phrase, after the verb phrase, or after the subject) and at the end. Take, for example, the tornado which hit Wichita Falls. (after the verb) In the paragraph describing a room, for example, the author begins with the first thing the viewer sees. . . . (after the introductory phrase) For instance, let us say that you made the simple generalizatior in this topic sentence: Tornadoes can be devastating. (beginning: Let us say, for instance, that you made the simple generalization ii . . . (after the verb) Let us say that you wrote a long letter, for example. (end) 0 First, second, next, then, last, finally. These transitional expres— sions, also used to indicate chronological order, can be used to signal examples, especially when the examples are in time order. They can also be used when it is established that a limited number of things are to be discussed; these terms signal the progression of the discussion. There are several things that I do not like about registration. First, i takes too long. The entire process takes the average student three hour: Second, it is too impersonal. No one knows your name, not even the counsel ors who stamp their names on your registration card. Next, I do not hit the atmosphere where registration is held. The constant sound of voice is irritating and so are the fluorescent lights which make everyone look unmask-“4&4 98 little sick. And finally, I do not like the way it is organized. Freshmen always get in last; consequently, they end up with classes at inconvenient times. ° To begin with. This expression can often be used instead of first. - Also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides that. These expressions are uscd to number or to include more information about an idea already stated. This tornado destroyed an entire block of homes and damaged many other houses and places of business. In addition, the tornado caused the death of over twenty people. This tornado destroyed an entire block of homes and damaged many other houses and places of business. Moreover, the tornado caused the death of over twenty people. Also, the tornado caused the death of over twenty people. Besides that, the tornado caused the death of over twenty people. Furthermore, the tornado caused the death of over twenty people. These expressions can go at the beginning of a sentence or at the beginning of an independent clause joined to another independent clause. In this case, you need to punctuate as follows: This tornado destroyed an entire block of homes; in addition, it caused the death of over twenty peOple. The expressions moreover and also can occur after the subject: The tornado, moreover, caused the death of over twenty people. (use commas) The tornado also caused the death of over twenty people. (no com~ mas) Special Note: Besides Besides means approximately the same as in addition; that is, it indicates a supplement to a point just started. However, besides is usually considered less formal. It is generally a good idea to use in addition in formal essays. - Finally, in conclusion. These expressions signal the last exam- ple or the conclusion of a paragraph: In conclusion, although I do not like the registration process, I know that at this point I have no choice but to go through with it. Remember, there are many ways to achieve coherence; do not rely entirely on one way. Try to use a variety of coherence devices-— a mixture of clauses, phrases, and transitional expressions. Do not overdo the use of transitions; it could be repetitious. Generally, two or three transitional expressions in a paragraph are sufficient. WWW? EXERCISE 4—1 1 Which of the transitions in this lesson would be appropriate in ' the following blanks? Make a list of those that fit in each blank. Although the United States has become an advanced techno— logical country, many old~fashioned superstitions still remain. m, when walking down a street in New York City past ingeniously built skyscrapers, you might see a sophisticated New Yorker walk around instead of under a ladder. Of course he or she knows that walking under a ladder brings bad luck. Or, should a black cat wander from a back alley to that same bustling street, some people w0u1d undoubtedly cross to the other side of the street to avoid letting a black cat cross their paths. W, it is true that most buildings in the United States do not have a thirteenth floor and many theaters do not have a thirteenth row. Again, we all know that thirteen is an unlucky number. __, if you take a drive through Pennsylvania Dutch country, you will see large colorful symbols called hex signs attached to houses and barns. Of course, the people who live there say they are just for decoration, but sometimes I wonder. EXERCISE 4-12 Using transitions studied in this lesson, add transitions to the follow— ing paragraph wherever they are appropriate. Dr. Adams, the old, gray-haired history teacher I had last semes— ter, is a perfect example of an absent—minded professor. He entirely forgot to call the roll or tell us which books to buy on the first day of class. On the day for our midterm exam, Dr. Adams arrived but had forgotten to make up the test. He could never remember where he put his wire—rimmed bifocals. He would often stop in the middle of his lecture and look all over the desk top for them. A student in the front row always had to remind him that they were in the left-hand pocket of his baggy sweater. I will never forget the brilliant lecture he gave on the Ming Dynasty in China on the day that we were supposed to study the American Civil War. EXERCISE 4-13 Choose one of the following writing assignments. I. Develop a topic sentence about superstitiOns in your country. Then write a paragraph of support using examples. 2. Develop a topic sentence about a teacher you have had. Support it with examples in your paragraph. |____m—m__,____._.___.m,,____—_-—I ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 15

The Expository Paragraph - CHAPTER 4 THE EXPOSETQRY...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 15. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online