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Unformatted text preview: Biology 1001 Notes Chapter 1 8/28/07 What is the Science of Biology? Bio = life Logy = study the study of life Diatons single-celled organisms Species group of individuals that get together to breed and multiply Blue whale biggest organism on the planet What are the Characteristics of Living Things? 1. Their structure is complex and organized Complex and organized? Example: salt organized but simple, oceans complex but unorganized, water flea organized and complex (all living things are organized and complex including bacteria) 2. They acquire materials and energy from their surrounding environment Example: plants utilize carbon dioxide and sunlight to make sugars, animals eat plants to obtain sugars for energy 3. They work to maintain their internal conditions-organized systems disintegrate-preventing disintegration requires energy-Homeostasis means staying the same-sweating when hot; shivering when cold-feeling thirsty when water is low-Homeostasis requires energy-opposes natural trend to disintegration-obtained from external source-Homeostasis requires physical repair-Parts break down-New materials required for repair-Food supplies material and energy 4. Growth-Extension of homeostasis-Homeostasis = staying the same-Growth = homeostasis plus extra-Organism grows in size/mass-Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis-Genetically programmed-Timing-Size-Shape 5. Living organisms respond to stimuli-Changes in internal environment-Temperature-Water level-Blood sugar level-Changes in external environment-Seek food and water-Avoid bitterness-Plants grow toward light 6. Reproduction-Reproduction themselves in kind (heredity)-Perpetuation of parents genetics-Genetic information stored in DNA molecules-Variation-Offspring similar to both parents-Offspring different from either parent-Simple code with complex error correction system 7. Evolution-Genetic composition of population changes (evolves)-Differential survival (natural selection)-Selects advantageous adaptations-The more time, the more change-Eventually become much different-Not based on a belief systembased on experimental (results and observations) (Not a faith based thing) 3 natural processes drive evolution: 1.Genetic variation/competition among variants 2. Not all survive 3. Adaptive characteristics inherited How Do Scientists Categorize The Diversity of Life? Three Domains:-Bacteria usually consist of single, simple cells-Archaea usually consist of single, simple cells-Eukarya bodies composed of one or more highly complex cells Domain Eukarya: 4 kingdoms-Kingdom Protista mostly a collection of single-celled organisms-Kingdom Fungi major kingdom-Kingdom Plantae major kingdom-Kingdom Animalia major kingdom Eukaryotic Organisms-Single-celled or multi-celled-Nucleus and other organelles-Larger (10x), more complex-Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals Prokaryotic Organisms-Single cells-No nucleus or organelles...
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Fall '08 term at LSU.
- Fall '08