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Notes for Exam 1

Notes for Exam 1 - Biology 1001 Notes Chapter 1 What is the...

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Biology 1001 Notes Chapter 1 8/28/07 What is the Science of Biology? “Bio” = life “Logy” = study “the study of life” Diatons – single-celled organisms Species – group of individuals that get together to breed and multiply Blue whale – biggest organism on the planet What are the Characteristics of Living Things? 1. Their structure is complex and organized Complex and organized? Example: salt – organized but simple, oceans – complex but unorganized, water flea – organized and complex (all living things are organized and complex including bacteria) 2. They acquire materials and energy from their surrounding environment Example: plants utilize carbon dioxide and sunlight to make sugars, animals eat plants to obtain sugars for energy 3. They work to maintain their internal conditions -organized systems disintegrate -preventing disintegration requires energy -Homeostasis means “staying the same” -sweating when hot; shivering when cold -feeling thirsty when water is low -Homeostasis requires energy -opposes natural trend to disintegration -obtained from external source -Homeostasis requires physical repair -Parts break down -New materials required for repair -Food supplies material and energy 4. Growth -Extension of homeostasis -Homeostasis = “staying the same” -Growth = homeostasis plus extra -Organism grows in size/mass -Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis -Genetically programmed -Timing -Size -Shape 5. Living organisms respond to stimuli -Changes in internal environment -Temperature -Water level -Blood sugar level -Changes in external environment -Seek food and water -Avoid bitterness -Plants grow toward light
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6. Reproduction -Reproduction themselves in kind (heredity) -Perpetuation of parents’ genetics -Genetic information stored in DNA molecules -Variation -Offspring similar to both parents -Offspring different from either parent -Simple code with complex error correction system 7. Evolution -Genetic composition of population changes (evolves) -Differential survival (natural selection) -“Selects” advantageous adaptations -The more time, the more change -Eventually become much different -Not based on a belief system…based on experimental (results and observations) (Not a faith based thing) 3 natural processes drive evolution: 1.Genetic variation/competition among variants 2. Not all survive 3. Adaptive characteristics inherited How Do Scientists Categorize The Diversity of Life? Three Domains: -Bacteria → usually consist of single, simple cells -Archaea → usually consist of single, simple cells -Eukarya → bodies composed of one or more highly complex cells Domain Eukarya: 4 kingdoms -Kingdom Protista → mostly a collection of single-celled organisms -Kingdom Fungi → major kingdom -Kingdom Plantae → major kingdom -Kingdom Animalia → major kingdom Eukaryotic Organisms -Single-celled or multi-celled -Nucleus and other organelles -Larger (10x), more complex -Protists, Plants, Fungi, and Animals Prokaryotic Organisms -Single cells -No nucleus or organelles -Smaller, less complex -bacteria, Archaea 8/30/07
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