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Study Guide Exam 1

Study Guide Exam 1 - General Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter...

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General Study Guide: Exam 1 Chapter 1 (Lectures 1 and 2) Knowing the Ocean World 1. Why is the Blue Planet unique among planets: how much water is salt water? 2. General role of Ocean in weather and climate 3. Average characteristics of world ocean/ distribution of land and ocean by hemisphere 4. Oceans and Seas (relative sizes/depths) know average depths of Atlantic compared with Gulf of Mexico 5. What is Loop Current, Yucatan Current, Gulf Stream 6. What is depth of Loop Current and what controls the depth? 7. How is a Mediterranean Sea different from an ocean? Is the Gulf considered one? 8. What are four main branches of oceanography? 9. Scientific method- from curiosity to scientific laws 10. Library at Alexandria, Egypt Founded by Alexander the Great in 3 rd Century BC; center of knowledge for nautical science for 600 years; collected ancient writings and copied ship logs; first university of the world; destroyed in 415 AD. 11. Eratosthene's major contribution 2 nd librarian and Greek astronomer, philosopher, and poet; studied Earth’s circumference, which was an 8% error; Based on relative angles of sun at noon on longest day of year and the distance between Syene and Alexandria; Map shows imaginary lines (like latitude and longitude) through places of interest 12. Dark Ages, probable reason for lack of advances Climate related. 13. Who discovered North America? The Vikings. 14. What were key Chinese inventions in ocean exploration? 15. Early explorers – chronology 16. Reasons for exploration 17. Key people/places (for ex. Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Library of Alexandria), voyages and accomplishments - mainly from lecture (Columbus, Cook, Franklin, Maury, Darwin, HMS Challenger, Glomar Challenger, Alvin) 18. Finding longitude, John Harrison’s chronometer, Prime meridian and longitude facts, Who was first to use Harrison’s chronometer and why important? Can you find your longitude? 19. Cook Expeditions: 1st organized scientific exploration 1) Extensive Scientific Investigations 2) Arctic to Antarctic 3) Mapping of the Pacific Ocean 4) Depth Soundings 5) Winds and Currents 6) Subsurface Temperatures 7) Biological Sampling 8) General Geography of the Pacific & Atlantic 20. Challenger accomplishments 1) 492 soundings 2) 263 water temperature profiles 3) 133 dredge hauls 4) Hypothesis
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