Study Guide for Exam 2

Study Guide for Exam 2 - Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 4, 5,...

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Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 4, 5, 6) Chapter 4 - Continental Margins and Ocean Basins 1. Use of echo sounders for mapping ocean bathymetry 2. Use of satellite altimeters for mapping ocean bathymetry 3. Main bathymetric features of ocean basin Three components: continental shelf, slope, and rise 4. Where in North America would you find an active and passive continental margin? Active Margin – continental margin which is on leading edge of lithospheric plate; subduction limits the seaward extent so continental shelf is narrow (Pacific-type, west coast) Passive Margin – continental margin which is not on leading edge; it faces spreading center at ocean ridge, continental shelf and margin are wide (Atlantic-type, east coast) 5. Ocean basin- Definitions and be able to label bathymetry of North Atlantic Ocean Basin – the deep seafloor beyond the continental margin made of oceanic crust (basalt) Ocean Ridges – mountainous chain of young basaltic rock at spreading centers of an ocean. Abyssal Plains – flat featureless expanses of sediment-covered ocean floor, between continental margins and ocean ridges about 3,700-5,500 meters below the ocean surfaces. Seamounts – volcanic projections from ocean floor that do not reach the sea surface. (generally pointed) Guyots – seamounts that have been eroded and have relatively flat tops. Trenches – arch-shaped depressions in the ocean floor, where lithospheric plates converge and subduction occurs. Island Arcs – curving chains of volcanic islands and seamounts, found along edges of trenches 6. Why are abyssal plain features so flat? An abyssal plain is a flat featureless expanse of sediment- covered ocean floor, between continental margins and ocean ridges about 3,700-5,500 meters below ocean surface. They are found on the periphery of all oceans. They are most common in the Atlantic, less so in the Indian Ocean, and relatively rare in the Pacific, where peripheral trenches trap most of the sediments flowing from the continents. Their flatness is caused by the smoothing effect of the layers of sediment. 7. Where do you find trenches and island arcs?
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Study Guide for Exam 2 - Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 4, 5,...

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