Study Guide for Test #2 Part 2

Study Guide for Test #2 Part 2 - Levels of syntactic...

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Levels of syntactic representation: o Deep structure : The underlying structure of sentences as represented by phrase structural rules Most basic, abstract level of a sentence, the underlying meaning An abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented most basic and abstract level of structural organization or representation of a sentence or idea. It is the level at which underlying meaning is represented structurally. It’s the meaning of the sentence. o Surface structure : the actual syntactic form of the sentence – the string of words in the sentence the structure of individual sentences after the application of transformational rules to deep structure the string of words in the sentence Structural ambiguity : o A situation in which a single phrase or sentence has two (or more) different underlying structures and interpretations o The distinction between deep and surface structure also allows us to account for structural ambiguity, the fact that two sentences having the same form can have different meanings o Simple phrases can also be structurally ambiguous Types of syntactic rules o Phrase structure rules Rules stating that the structure of a phrase of a specific type consists of one or more constituents in a particular order Instead of using a tree diagram, information can be shown like this: NP → Art N
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o Transformational rules Rules that are used to change or move constituents in structures derived from phrase structure rules Rules that change the order of constituents in the basic sentence structures – movement within the sentence They are important for converting deep structures into surface structures. convert the deep structure into a surface structure, a sentence ready to be spoken. Example: S S
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= Mary saw George recently Recently Mary saw George o Lexical rules Rules stating which words can be used for constituents generated by phrase structure rules Rules which indicate words to be used for constituents Rules that specify which words can be used when we rewrite constituents specify which words can be used as nouns, verbs, articles, etc. . But these lexical rules are incomplete so linguists refer to a mental lexicon, which is like a dictionary -Difference between particles and prepositions: -Prepositions have to be followed by a noun phrase
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Study Guide for Test #2 Part 2 - Levels of syntactic...

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