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Exam 1 study guide

Exam 1 study guide - Sociology Study Guide for Exam 1...

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Sociology Study Guide for Exam 1 Chapter 1 Class Conflict – Marx’s term for the struggle between capitalists and workers; engine of human history. Herbert Spencer – coined the term “survival of the fittest,” his evolutionary model of society in which, over generations of time, the most capable members survive and the least capable members die out. This model was popular during his time but has since been discredited; sometimes called the second founder of sociology coined the term “survival of the fittest.” He thought that helping the poor was wrong, that this merely helped the “less fit” survive. Social Integration – the degree to which people feel a part of social groups; identified by Emile Durkheim Emile Durkheim – was the first sociologist to directly demonstrate how social force affect people’s behavior and was largely responsible for getting sociology recognized as distinct academic disciple; got sociology recognized as separate disciple; studied how social forces affect behavior; identified social integration Conflict Theory – a theatrical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups competing for scarce resources; society is arranged in such a way that resources and rewards are unevenly distributed among the population; society is therefore characterized more by conflict than order; focus on struggles between powerful and powerless; study of social conflict and inequality Functional Analysis (functionalism) – a theatrical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibrium; each institute plays a role in keeping society running smoothly. Each part functions for stability; problems arise when parts do not function Social Sciences – the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations; examine human relationships Verstehen – a German word used by Weber that is perhaps best understood as “to have insight into someone’s situation”; understanding or insight Symbolic Interaction – a theatrical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another; how people use symbols; changing the meaning of symbols affects expectations; reality is constructed through everyday interaction; symbols of shared meaning among a group Auguste Comte – was the first people to use the term “sociology,” and is often credited with being the founder of sociology for first suggesting that the scientific method be
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applied to studying the social world; applying the scientific method to social world; coined the term “sociology”; “armchair philosophy”-drawing conclusions from informal observations of social life Social Location – the group of memberships that people have because of their location in
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