Class%2013%20--%20Attitudes%20I

Class%2013%20--%20Attitudes%20I - Class 13: Attitudes I...

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Unformatted text preview: Class 13: Attitudes I MGTS 3401 Cummings MGTS 3401 Cummings Goals and Metrics Goals and Metrics ► Some very nice ideas! ► Specs? ► Level: How many, how much? Target Numbers ► Measures and Metrics? Thumbs Short survey questions? When? Who rates? MGTS 3401 Cummings Fine­tuning our Individual “Goals” Fine­tuning our Individual “Goals” ► Be more extroverted ► Transfer into # of specific behaviors you’ll try Contribute meaningfully in class 3 x per participation period? MGTS 3401 Cummings Fine­tuning our Group “Goals” Fine­tuning our Group “Goals” ► Get an A ► Learn Something ► Cohesive Team ► Equal Participation Quantity Effort Quality? MGTS 3401 Cummings Best Practices ► Immediate Serious discussion about Contract Measurable Target for each individual and group goal Look at “FAQs” ► Over the whole project Technique: Agendas and expectations for meetings Advantages of your group’s Private Message space Making the most of every step; using one to improve the next (sequential interdependence) MGTS 3401 Cummings Sequential Interdependence a b c d e x MGTS 3401 Cummings Group Analysis Project Ask a good Interview Question Translate to a Variable Read Approved Article(s) on Variable Preliminary Hypothesis Gather Data from Organization Analysis and Inference Read more Focused Approved Article(s) on Variable Revised Hypothesis Second, more focused Data Collection Final Analysis of WHY things are the way they are Regarding this variable MGTS 3401 Cummings Your Recommendations Pooled Interdependence a e X b d MGTS 3401 Cummings c Reciprocal Interdependence a e b x d MGTS 3401 Cummings c 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Three Deliverables ­­ One Semester­long Project Find a contact person in actual organization; memo committing to work with you Short Unstructured Interview with this person Translate that to 1 or 2 OB or Mgmt “Variables” Read 1 or 2 articles from Approved Journals on that variable Write tentative hypotheses Design first data collection Conduct first Data collection Integrate data results with reading, tentative hypothesis; what is tentative causal explanation? What’s missing, confusing? Read another 1 or 2 articles from Approved Journal Second data collection Write up causal explanation of why things are the way they are Make a few concrete recommendations that address the MGTS 3401 Cummings cause Group Analysis Project Ask a good Interview Question Translate to a Variable Read Approved Article(s) on Variable Preliminary Hypothesis Gather Data from Organization Analysis and Inference Read more Focused Approved Article(s) on Variable Revised Hypothesis Second, more focused Data Collection Final Analysis of WHY things are the way they are Regarding this variable MGTS 3401 Cummings Your Recommendations Inference Data MGTS 3401 Cummings Data from which we make an inference Research Designs ► Case Study ► Field Survey ► Lab Experiment ► Field Experiment Data Collection Techniques ► Structured Observation ► Unstructured interview ► Structured interview ► Survey ► Experiment MGTS 3401 Cummings Types of Interviews Unstructured Interview ►Broad Question ►Open­Ended Semi—Structured Structured Interview Interview ►Standard Questions ►Standard questions ►Single specific topic Question ►Then listen ►Just keep responder focused on topic ►Responder controls for each ►Same order ►Same wording Open­ended responses length and content of response ►Responder answers on a numerical scale e.g. (1 – 5, or 1­7). MGTS 3401 Cummings The Perceptual Process Sensation a b c d e Selection Organization Translation S e n s o r y f i l t e r s S e l e c t i o n f i l t e r s S t i m u l i a c g h l m p r s t v a c g h l m p r s t v a c g h l m p r s t v a&c h p r&s h p r s h p r s u v w x y z MGTS 3401 Cummings Adapted from Pierce & Adapted Gardner, 2002 Gardner, Stimuli interpretation Physical sensation Stimuli organization Stimuli acceptance a c a c List of Short Cuts/Heuristics List of Short Cuts/Heuristics Selection Stage – we select using these features of the stimuli: Contrast Intensity Novelty Change Translation Stage – we attach meaning based on: Halo Stereotyping Primacy Effect Recency Effect Organizing Stage – we group features based on: Similarity Figure Ground Closure MGTS 3401 Cummings “What issues are exciting, changing, or challenging in this organization right now?” ► Start Broad ► Then, Narrow Listen…. Separate questions ► Exciting versus Challenging versus Changing ► “So, x is what is exciting; what issues are most challenging for ► Probe (follow up) you? ► “So, x is what has challenged your organization/department in the last year; what changes are likely to come next?” “So, tell us more about x….” MGTS 3401 Cummings ► Employment Interview Perception in Organizations ► Performance Expectations Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants. Self­fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities. Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance. MGTS 3401 Cummings ► Performance Evaluations Individuals in Organizations Employee’s ’ Attitudes, Feelings, Beliefs, Intentions Structure Climate Culture Working Conditions Security Pay Co-Workers MGTS 3401 Cummings Job Design Technology Policies What caused Chris Black and Mary Martin’s Performance? ► Ability ► Effort ► Difficult Job ► Coworkers ► Luck MGTS 3401 Cummings What explains these results? what extent was each of the following a cause of ____’s performance? 1 2 3 4 5 Very little very much Low Ability Low Effort Difficult Job Unproductive Coworkers Luck You are Chris 2.29 3.82 3.93 2.43 2.44 Mary 2.94 3.92 3.19 1.81 1.35 MGTS 3401 Cummings Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. In general, we tend to blame the person first, not the situation. MGTS 3401 Cummings Errors and Biases in Attributions Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Thought: When student gets an “A” on an exam, they often say they studied hard. But when they don’t do well, how does the self serving bias come into play? MGTS 3401 Cummings Hint: Whose fault is it usually when an exam is “tough”? Attitude An evaluative statement or judgment about a particular phenomenon (objects, people or events). MGTS 3401 Cummings Attitudes Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. MGTS 3401 Cummings Attitude Components Affective Component Cognitive Component Behavior toward the Object Behavioral Intention Component MGTS 3401 Cummings Important Attitudes What is “job involvement?” How is it different from Job Satisfaction? Employee Engagement? What are the three dimensions of Organizational Commitment? How are they different from each other? ►Continuance ►Normative ►Affective MGTS 3401 Cummings Attitude Components Affective Component Cognitive Component Behavior toward the Object Behavioral Intention Component MGTS 3401 Cummings Attitude Formation ► Personal experience ► Association Coming into direct contact with an attitude object creates perceptions about the object’s characteristics which are transformed into an attitude about the object. The transference of parts or all of an attitude about an old object to a new attitude object. MGTS 3401 Cummings Attitude Formation ► Social learning The influence of people s/he works with on the formation of the individual’s attitudes. MGTS 3401 Cummings For Monday ► Read the rest of Chapter 3 (Job Satisfaction) ► Bring a second hard (printed) copy of Part II only (Section IV) of your completed “Early October Survey” (done for today) ► Prepare the FNT questions MGTS 3401 Cummings ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course MGTS 3401 taught by Professor Pierce during the Spring '08 term at University of Minnesota Duluth.

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