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Unformatted text preview: Class 26: Leadership I Professor Geoff Bell MGTS 3401 Cummings Modified by Bell What is “leadership”?
► When you hear the term “leadership,” what comes to your mind? 2 Definitions of Leadership
The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. A person who get things done through other people MGTS 3401 Cummings Combined Definition of Leadership
Leadership is the accepted use of organizationallyderived and/or personal power to influence other people to get things done. MGTS 3401 Cummings “Leadership” is a relational construct
► You need followers to have a leader. ► Think of saying “all chiefs and no Indians” Leader Led Leadership vs. Management
► Leadership: The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. ► Management is process of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling (supervisory behavior); or, uses authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members A naïve approach to leadership
► If you were wanting to study leadership, but were ignorant of the leadership literature (i.e., you hadn’t read today’s readings), how would you proceed? ► What would you expect would predict the construct called leadership? Leadership Theories and Models
► Trait ► Behavioral ► Contingency ► Contemporary ► We will consider the first 3 today, and the last next day. MGTS 3401 Cummings Questions for today
► Which of the leadership theories take into account “personality” factors of the leader? MGTS 3401 Cummings Trait Approach
► Traits (examples) ► Assumption: Leaders are born ► Goal: Select leaders ► Problems Extraversion Conscientiousness Openness to Experience Better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness Questions for today
► Which of the leadership theories take into account “personality” factors of the follower? MGTS 3401 Cummings Behavioral Theories
Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. • Behavioral theory: Leadership behaviors can be eadership taught. taught. Vs. Vs. • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.
MGTS 3401 Cummings Question for Today
► What is the difference between Blake and Mouton’s (Managerial Grid) Leadership model and Hershey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory? MGTS 3401 Cummings Blake & Mouton managerial grid vs. Blanchard’s situational leadership
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial ® Grid
9 Hershey and Blanchard Situational Model
1,9 Accommodating (Yield and Comply) 9,9 Sound (Contribute and Commit) 8 Follower Readiness
Able Unwilling Willing 7 Concern for People 6 5,5 Status Quo (Compromise) Supportive Participative Monitoring 5 4 Leadership Behaviors 3 Unable
1,1 Indifferent (Evade and Elude) 9,1 Controlling (Direct and Dominate) Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations 2 1 Low
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for Production
MGTS 3401 Cummings High MGTS 3401 Cummings The Managerial Grid
(Blake and Mouton) E X H I B I T 12–1 MGTS 3401 Cummings Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid® High
9 1,9 Accommodating (Yield and Comply) 8 9,9 Sound (Contribute and Commit) 7 Concern for People 6 5,5 Status Quo (Compromise) 5 4 3 2 1,1 Indifferent (Evade and Elude) 9,1 Controlling (Direct and Dominate) 1 Low
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for Production
MGTS 3401 Cummings High What the behavioral theories tell us
► Leadership behaviors can be taught. ► It’s not just a matter of “you’ve got it or you don’t,” like trait theory argues. ► Initiating structure and consideration behaviors are associated with effective leadership. Followers of leaders high in consideration behaviors are more satisfied with jobs, more motivated, and have more respect for leaders. Initiating structure behaviors are related to higher levels of productivity and positive performance evaluations. CONTINGENCY THEORIES
► All Consider the Situation ► Assumptions underlying the different models: Fiedler’s Contingency Model Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model LeaderMember Exchange Path Goal Theory Vroom & Yetton Participation Decision Tree
Fiedler: Leader’s style is fixed Others’: Leader’s behavior can and should be changed MGTS 3401 Cummings CONTINGENCY THEORIES
► All Consider the Situation Path Goal Theory Hershey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model Fiedler’s Contingency Model LeaderMember Exchange Vroom & Yetton Participation Decision Tree But each considers something specific and potentially different about the situation…..
MGTS 3401 Cummings What are the contingencies?
► When you think about contingencies that could effect leader effectiveness, what contingencies might exist? Fiedler’s contingency model
► Fiedler’s leaders are either relationshiporiented or task oriented. Situational characteristics are leadermember relations (good or bad), task structure (structured or unstructured work assignments), & position power (strong or weak). Key: Move leaders to needed situations – organizations move the leaders so they are in “appropriate” situations that will benefit the organization. He assumes it’s hard/impossible for a leader to change. ► ► Hershey and Blanchard Situational Model
Able Unwilling Willing Supportive Supportive Participative Monitoring Monitoring Leadership Behaviors Unable Directive High Task and and Relationship Orientations Orientations MGTS 3401 Cummings The PathGoal Theory E X H I B I T 12–4 MGTS 3401 Cummings Some conclusions on leadership
► Three types of models so far: Trait Behavioral Contingency ► Each type says something about leadership: Personality Traits better predict leadership emergence than effectiveness. Leadership Behaviors may be learned, and may enhance leadership effectiveness. Many contingencies in the leader, the followers, and the situation may affect leader effectiveness. ...
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- Spring '08