2008_Food_Allergies___Sensitivities

2008_Food_Allergies___Sensitivities - Food Sensitivities A...

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Food Sensitivities
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(CBS, Nov 2005) A 15-year-old girl from Canada died last week after kissing her boyfriend. He had eaten a peanut butter sandwich nine hours earlier and she was allergic to peanuts. Having an allergic reaction from kissing is actually not uncommon, The Early Show medical correspondent Dr. Emily Senay explains. A study of nut allergies a few years ago found about 5 percent of people in the study had an allergic reaction through kissing.” … A Kiss Of Death ? “A Canadian coroner confirmed Thursday that a teenager — once believed to have died from a peanut allergy after kissing her boyfriend — died from an asthma attack. A recent study shows at the end of an hour, there is no allergen left in the saliva. . ..She had spent hours at a party with smokers when her breathing problems began.” May 2006:
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Food Sensitivities: Allergies and Intolerances * Reaction that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual * (lactose intolerance)
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Prevalence of Food Sensitivity in the U.S. Self-diagnosis (questionnaire) data: 5 - 33% of adult population report being adversely affected by one or more foods Most cases of food sensitivities are not allergic reactions (true food allergies)   e.g.  Lactose intolerance  :        Deficiency of lactase ( β -galactosidase) enzyme lactose (milk) galactose + glucose               Most common food sensitivity Lactose is not absorbed, fermented by bacterial in lower GI tract Causes intestinal bloating, cramping, diarrhea       Some individuals can tolerate small amounts of lactose lactose
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Lactose intolerance (con’t) Congenital lactose intolerance Rare genetic (inherited) disorder Mutation in the lactase gene non-functional enzyme Adult-onset lactose intolerance: Most common cause of lactose intolerance Disappearance of lactase activity with age Down-regulation of lactase gene expression after age 5 Apparent “normal” (original) condition Adult lactase (enzyme) persistence (lactose tolerance ): C T mutation upstream of the lactase gene Arose 5 - 8,000 years ago in Europe
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T T C T Lactase persistence (mutant) Caucasians: 60-90% Lactase non-persistence (intolerance) Most common world- wide Africans, Asians: 80 – 100% lactase gene Genetic basis of adult lactase persistence (lactose tolerance) chromosome 2 C C Two alleles IF :
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Avoidance of lactose Low-lactose milk (immobilized enzyme-treated milk) bacterially-derived β -galactosidase Enzyme supplement (self-administered tablets) Treatment of lactose intolerance
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Food Sensitivities: Allergies and Intolerances (lactose intolerance)
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2008_Food_Allergies___Sensitivities - Food Sensitivities A...

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